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Prepared by: Michael Waschak AND Hevzi Abdullahu, Esved Ahmeti, Buleza Ahmeti, Besart Alshiqi, Edona Bajrami, Eremal Bajrami, Venera Balidemaj, Edona Begu, Renea Behluli, Adelina Bilalli, Lorika Bina, Anisa Bina, Ermira Birinxhiku, Alketa Blakaj, Ejona Blyta, Lirim Bllaca, Gemza Burgija, Nysret Buzhala, Shpend Bytyqi, Anesa Colakovic, Gent Fetahaj, Hana Gafurri, Blond Gerqari, Abetare Gojani, Besart Grabanica, Feste Gjonbalaj, Blerina Halili, Valon Hasanaj, Kreshnik Haxhiu, Lyra Himaduna, Arif Hoti, Vjendita Hoxha, Albina Ibrahimi, Zana Idrizi, Qendresa Imeri, Miroslav Jacimovic, Ljubica Jankovic, Dren Kajdomcaj, Marigona Kastrati, Adea Kelmendi, Rrona Kelmendi, Artur Krasniqi, Rina Krasniqi, Leotrim Krasniqi, Rea Kryeziu, Laure Lumezhi, Argjira Lluka, Donita Macula, Gentiana Mahmuti, Sehare Maliqi, Samet Maloku, Lilijana Memija, Flovijana Morina, Albina Murturi, Besiane Musmurati, Behar Mustafa, Brendon Nikoliqi, Nita Nishliu, Fjolla Nuqi, Nart Orana, Fiona Podrima, Brishen Iannitelli-Pombo, Dafina Prekazi, Ylli Qerkini, Arion Rizaj, Rina Rezniqi, Atlant Rexhaj, Muhamed Rexhepi, Esat Sahiti, Rita Saraci, Endrit Saraqini, Brikena Sela, Festim Selimi, Mimoza Selmani, Dijana Simijonovic, Kaltrina Sulejmani, Shkelzen Shabani, Kastriot Shala, Edona Shkodra, Egzon Shkuliqi, Arta Shita, Fjolla Shuku, Deniz Tortoshi, Sinan Thaqi, Andina Vllahiu, Visar Xhambazi, Flutra Xhemshiti, Butrint Ymeri, Gresa Zekaj, Kreshnik Zeneli, Herolinda Zenuni, Gonxhe A'Mula, Dafina Olluri, Blinera Meta. add your name


Letters A-M

Letters N-Z





























Aliu, Leonora. (2011, September). Lumi I Shkatërrimit të Madh.  Jeta Në  Kosovë. Retrieved September 12, 2012, from,978,92

         “Lumi I Shkatërrimit të Madh” is translated into “The Destruction of the Great River.” The article was released on September 25th, 2011. In addition, the river is called the White River which is located in the area called Dukagjin. Moreover, the White River is the largest river in Kosovo. It is about 122 kilometers long. In the article, Ms. Aliu explains that the river still continues to not be taken care of by the institution and the community as a whole. Furthermore, the problem that is being explained is that the sand and the rocks that are located in the river are being taken out from the river which causes the river to have a shape of a flat surface. The river tries to gain back the balance of its natural shape, but as much as it tries to do so, the waterway continues to become flat which causes a fast speed of its flow. Despite the importance of the white river, the destruction is reflected by the destruction of the agricultural land, water use, and flooding. The problem occurring because of the destruction of the river is that the community that receives the river is the poor region in Kosovo and so they will not be able to receive any water because of this situation happening. Moreover, the White River is one of the cleanest waters. 

        The Director of the Commissions for Mines and Minerals states that the case that is happening to the White River is against the law and there are about 170 cases that occurred exactly like this one and about 29 orders that state, it should be prevented. This illegal operation that is being done to the White River still continues without the concern of the society. Furthermore, a political advisor by the name of Gazmend Avdiu states that they are working on a campaign for the awareness that has happened in order to have more people know what is happening to the White river. According to an environmentalist by the name of Gjonbalaj, he states that the ministry will not have any effect on this situation because they will never help with this situation; the White River isn’t the only river that is in destruction.  

Aliu, L (September, 2012). "The destruction of forests and the failure of government to protect them. Retrieved Dec 9, 2012 from is an article written in September 2012, in Albanian language, from a member of “Vetvendosja” political group. The author stresses the importance of these natural resources for our country, and the unfair treatment of Kosova’s government in trying to find a solution for this issue. Mr. Aliu states that, during the Summer these forests are getting burnt, while during the winter irresponsible people are cutting down them. According to the article, “Bjeshket e Nemuna” and “Sharri’s forests” are among the zones which are being exposed to this phenomenon.The author claims that, the irresponsible management has led to this destruction. Always according to Mr Aliu, the government is giving the tender to companies which are not showing the right determination in saving these forests but instead of this, they are letting certain parts to be burnt intentionally, in order to cut them off later and sell them.In conclusion of the article, the author writes that, despite having the option to call for help KFOR, which is permissible in cases of urgency such as this case, and also, having the chance to demand help from the European Committee of Civilian rights, who are authorized to assist in cases when environment is in danger even though outside European Union, government did not demand for assistance. For aforementioned reasons, the author demands responsibility from everyone who is implicated in this issue and he states that these people should be sanctioned for not protecting the environment.

ARD, I. (2009). Enviromental threats and opportunities assessment. Burlington,Vermont : P.O. Box 1397.Retrieved from

This article refers to the water resource in Kosovo; the use of water, the need for clean water for drinking which means infiltration of water, in need for water during summer months and waste water ; that most of the people are not taught use water they spend more than they need and this leads to the lack of water. In this article is also mentioned water - related agreements allowed by EU-member countries and also other types of water issues.

A. I. (2009). ETOA. Environmental Threats and Opportunities Assesment, 1, 42. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from

USAID/Kosovo is engaged in some activities regarding water and energy sector in Kosovo, in order to improve these two sectors. Kosovo being a young country, (independence declared on 17th of February, 2007), faces issues of high unemployment rate, low number of qualified people in almost every field, high birth rate of population etc. They focused on the most important sectors in Kosovo which are agriculture and commerce. Moreover, they concluded that water and energy sectors are the ones that need to be regulated. Try to make an efficient use of these two. This research paper recommends some solutions of how energy and water can be used efficiently.

Agjencioni për Mbrojtjen e Mjedisit të Kosovës (2011, October 24). Gjendje e Rëndë në Deponinë e Mirashit. AMMK. Retrieved September 11, 2012, from,7,86

The article is titled “Gjendje e rëndë në deponinë e Mirashit” or translated to English “A difficult situation in Mirash’s deposit site.” The article is in Albanian; it is published by AMMK (The Environmental Protection Agency of Kosovo), on their website The article was written after AMMK visited the waste deposit site in Mirash, Obiliq, with the inquiry of the Environmental Protection Office of Obiliq. The aim of the visit was to assess the situation of the deposit site which was believed to be in a bad state.

         In the article AMMK states that the situation in the waste deposit site is very poor due to bad management of the site but also other factors. One of the major concerns is regarding the waste water. The problem is that the pumps for the management of the waste water have not been in use since 2007 which has resulted in waste water getting on the surface and mixing with superficial water. Another major concern regarding this deposit site is the combustion of waste which has resulted in the pollution of the air on this zone. Due to these two and other factors, a strong unpleasant odor is present over the area which also creates conditions for the spread of diseases and epidemics, consequently putting the lives of those close enough to risk.

Agjensioni per Mbrojtjen e Mjedisit te Kosoves. (n.d.). Ajri. Retrieved October 9, 2012, from,21

            This is another publication of AMMK (the Kosovo Environmental Protection Agency). It briefly explains the bad air pollution situation in Kosovo and lists the main pollutants. Among the main pollutants are KEK and the traffic. 

Ahmeti, Hysni. "Waste Management Report Dragash." N.p., 2010. Web. Retreived October 12, Oct. 2012 from <>.

This is a report that talks about the waste management in Kosovo particularly Dragash. It is stated that waste management is regulated by the waste law which aims to protect human health as well as environment by reducing pollution, hazardous materials. This purpose was to be taken into consideration through waste management which would set conditions of preventing the environment and reducing hazardous waste trough the development of technology,  use of certain cleaning products efficiently,  the recovery of waste, use of waste as energy source, and restorations of waste.

Moreover, it was formed a strategic waste management plan which includes the examination of the waste management, the aims and mechanisms for waste management, orientation of the reproduction of waste and its treatment as well as the orientation for the disposal of waste, and so on.

Further, this report provides definitions of the important types of waste as well as general definitions of some important terms such as; what is waste, residue, waste management, recycling, and so on. Moreover, there is a classification of waste, its generation, areas which are in and out of service, as well as data collected of the revenues, which initiated investments in the waste management field.


Bashkëjetojnë me mbeturinat. (2012, May 24). Kosovo News Network - Ballina. Retrieved October 11, 2012 from,29,52779This article describes the situation of pollution by the garbage in our country. Moreover, it also emphasizes that the pollution by the garbage is one of the main pollution problems in Kosovo. It is stated that this problem is not only present in Prishtina, but also in other cities. In addition, it is stated that the garbage can be found everywhere in the city. The article also discusses the initiative to collect the garbage and the importance of this initiative.

Baxhaku, B. I., & Lajqi, N. B. (2010). Ecology and Road Transport in Republic of Kosova. Retrieved November 4, 2012, from This publication is about the state of environmental pollution by motor vehicles. It elaborates on the situation in the world and Kosovo.

Behrami, S., Bajraktari, F., & Zogaj, N. Kosovo Environment Protection Agency, (2008). Ground water pollution in Mitrovica and surroundings. Retrieved from
The authors argue that the drinking water quality in Mitrovica region is not satisfying. One of the contributors toward this is the pollution from the industry as well as the waste water. Indeed, this pollution includes the river of Ibri and Sitnica. This report presents the state of surface waters in the two main rivers of Mitrovica, and as such helps one determine the level of drinkable water in Mitrovica region.
This Article/Research Paper relates to Mitrovica and its water polution problems. Mitrovica is based in the North of Kosovo and owns the main part of natural resources. According to the article, Mitrovica is not only the most polluted city in Kosovo, but in Europe. The article discusses the water polution caused by exploiting those natural resources, which basically polluts the 3 main rivers that cross the city and from which the city gets the main water supply. It contains a lot of tables to make the contamination of the drinking water clear. The article is originally written in English.

Beqiraj. A, (2011, May 4), Sfidat e mjedisit ne Kosove, Retrieved from ‘

The article starts by stressing the lack of awareness of Kosovo citizens that a clean environment is the basis for good health.  The author says “Kosovars know the importance of a good environment because they keep their property very clean, but what they don’t protect is everything outside their property.” To raise this awareness in younger generations, in the framework of Education Program, the Green Package was introduced.

This article talks about the many ways of environmental pollution that are present in Kosovo. It talks about things such as wastes as in garbage, to the lack of clean water for citizens. A study done in 2003 has shown that the lack of access to clean water has risen from 45% people lacking clean water in 2000, to 75% lacking clean water in 2003, which shows a drastic and a worrying increase in these figures. According to this article the European Union has provided a fund of 2 million dollars for a project which tackles the problem of air pollution from our old and lagging power plants.

BIRN. (2008, February 2). Life in Kosovo discussed protection of Kosovo's forests. Retrieved from
This is a debate report written by the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network, BIRN. The report discuses the issue of forests in Kosovo, that cover 40% of its territory. The main topics discussed are: How are they being managed? Are these forests being destroyed? Who is destroying them? Who is protecting the forests from illegal logging? Are the authorities able to stop the illegal woodcutters, and are they working on protecting nature and its values?
The panelists present in this debate are experts of environmental issues, especially those related to forestry Mr. Luma, who is the executive director of Kosovo Forestry Agency, KFA, states that "There are about 8,200 cases, which have been proceeded in courts regarding illegal actions concerning Kosovo's forests", pointing out cases of illegal logging and attacks against foresters or forest guards. However, the head of the Kosovo Association of Ecologists, Behxhet Mustafa, argues that "The current situation amounts to ecological destruction, forests are being destroyed, they are being massacred." The discussion goes on between all the environmental experts and different information about forests in Kosovo are provided. In conclusion, all the experts agree that the government must take this issue more seriously and put Kosovo's environment and forests as their top priority. The report is very well-written, interesting, and informative.

Blackbird. (2008, April 29). Three theories on the origin of pollution in Kosovo. New Kosova Report. Retrieved September 18, 2011, from

"Three theories on the origin of pollution in Kosovo" is an article written by a person with the nickname Blackbird. This article was published on the web-site on April 29, 2008. The Blackbird in this article writes about the polluted air in Kosovo, the main factors that impact Kosovars not to clean and take care of the environments outside their homes. The author starts the article by making-up a story, that Kosovars behave so, so that Kosovo becomes "unwanted", and other opponents will let Kosovars have it. But, then in the other paragraphs he clarifies that the truth is very different. He thinks that the main reason why Kosovars care only for their home, shops, private spaces is because here nobody feels as Kosovar. Albanians in Kosovo, feel as Albanians not Kosovars and the Serbs remain Serbs, no matter if they are in Kosovo or Serbia.
This is a very interesting viewpoint for the behavior of Kosovo's people. I think that even that the author made up the story in first paragraphs, what he really means is that if Albanians in Kosovo do not say that they are Kosovars, it is because they do not feel so, and for that reason they dot not really feel like this is their homeland, that is why they do not care to protect also spaces outside their homes.

Borgna, L., Di Lella, L. A., Nannonni, F., Pisani, A., Pizzatti, E., Protano, G., Riccobono, F., & Rossi, S. (2009). The high contents of lead in soils of northern kosovo. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 101(2), 137-146. Retrieved from

This article was written by a group of researchers from the University of Siena. The researchers conducted a soil-based geochemical survey in an area of about 350 km2 in northern Kosovo around the Zveçan Lead-Zinc smelter. The article shows that the surface area, especially around the smelter is heavy polluted with heavy elements such as Lead, Zinc, Cadmium etc. The article also contains many graphs of pollution levels and also some maps of the heavy polluted areas. One of the findings of this article is that the pollution in this area exceeds by large the EU standards on soil pollution. Additionally, the authors also warn of the effects of this pollution in the air quality and in the wild and cultivated plants that enter the food chain. Concentrations of heavy elements related to mining activities significantly decreased with depth; hence the pollution basically affected the upper 50 cm of soil, and it decreased systematically with distance from the smelter. Finally, the authors also argue that Soil remediation could be rather simple and relatively inexpensive owing to the limited depth of penetration of the contaminants

Buzhala, M. (2012, August 30). Mbetjet industriale ngufatin kryeqytetin. Lajm Online. Retrieved October 25, 2012, from

This is a recent article written by Mentor Buzhala, which deals with the environmental situation of industrial wastes. It states that different construction companies in Prishtina, throw the industrial wastes in public spaces.  The same is done by the citizens that do construction of their homes. However, Muhamet Gashi the chief of the Inspectorate  of Prishtina admits that the industrial wastes present a big problem for Kosovo, however the situation has improved compared to the previous years.

Brajshori, M. (2011, February 24). Kosovo sets sights on renewable energy goals. SETimes, p. 1. Retrieved February 27, 2012, from

Kosovo is considering introducing renewable energy as one of its main sources of providing energy, to boost energy for a larger percentage. This would increase Kosovo’s chances to become a part of EU, if Kosovo achieves the 20% criteria (a standard set by EU which requires that Kosovo’s 20% of energy should be produced from natural resources). A wind farm is being built at an estimated investment of 1 million euros. The produced energy is thought to also be solt to neighboring countries.  

Buza, S., & Duraku, R. (2009). National Background Report on Transport for Kosovo (under UNSCR 1244). Retrieved November 4, 2012, from This 28-page report talks about transportation in Kosovo from the general perspective. It contains an executive summary which describes what it elaborates exactly.


Cakaj, Trandelina (2007, December 15). "Projects." Energy Sector Clean Up and Land Reclamation Project. N.p., Retrieved October 12, 2012 from <>.This article talks about a project called “Kosovo Clean-Up and Land Reclamation Project” organized by KEK which was financed by International Development Association and intends to remove waste that KEK provides to the environment. The treatment includes removal of chemicals/wastes from the tank storage facilities, drums.Moreover, the hazardous waste is shipped outside Kosovo to certified treatment facilities. This shipping procedure takes eight months to ship.

Çollaku, P. (2012, February 20). Ishulli Aziatik Këshillon Kosovarët për Thëngjill . Retrieved February 22, 2012, from,978,1424

This article is published in an online newspaper called Jeta ne Kosove (Life in Kosovo) on February 20, 2012. This article talks about the advice given by the asian island - Borneo to Kosovar citizens to put pressure upon policy makers to stop the usage of coal for producing electricity. Borneo island sends encouragement to oppose Kosovo's plans to build coal-fired power plant. In a video on You Tube, the people of Borneo seen explaining their success in stopping power plant that would reveal 'the evil black' in the environment.


Demi, A., & Sinani, N. (2011). Energy Projects in Kosovo, 24. Retrieved September 7, 2011, from,3&id=2011 
The article, "Energy Projects in Kosovo" has been recently published by the Kosovo Institute for Policy Research and Development together with GAP Institute and FIQ. The article mainly focuses on the privatization process of Kosova B thermal power plant. Also, it shows how the outside parties such as: Government of the Republic of Kosovo, World Bank, and the International Finance Corporation are associated with the problems which occur in energy related projects. Furthermore, this article mentions the standards of the European Union's latest energy policy objectives and where Kosovo stands within the obstacle.

Dragusha, B., Sadiku, M., Shala, F., Rexha, B. Industrial landfill source of air pollution in Mitrovica. ISBN: 978-1-61804-012-1. Retrieved from
Furthermore, the authorities have immediate obligations to take deliberate, concrete and targeted steps towards the full realization of the highest attainable standard of health with particular attention to the core principles of non-discrimination and equal treatment especially regarding women, children, adolescents and vulnerable groups such as refugees and displaced persons. As for children, the Convention on the Rights of the Child foresees the right to protection, the right to information, the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health. In addition, responsible authorities are obliged to ensure the full implementation of this right. 

Duriqi, V. (2011). Ministria padit Ferronikelin. Retrieved September 18, 2011, from
In this article, Mr. Duriqi explains the reasons behind the sue that the Ministry of Environment of Republic of Kosovo did against the giant "Ferronokeli". The author writes how "Ferronikeli" didn't fulfill the requirements they were asked for by law before, and how they kept releasing CO and other emissions without control. After some measures made by the inspectors of the Ministry of Environment, it was found that "Ferronikeli" surpassed the allowed levels of emission by 9 times.

Heavy Metal emission from Trepca research shows environmental impact that a huge dormant lead and zinc mining facility, named Trepca causes. The natural science investigations have thus focused on to determine the extent of the heavy metal pollution of the nearby river and found that the mining waste is still a very significant source of heavy metal pollution to the river, where the levels of in particular lead and cadmium were found to many times higher than WHO standards.
On the basis of this it is argued that the heavy metal contamination of the area presents a significant health risk to the local population, and the project is proposed in order to tease out some valuable lessons and guidelines relating to environmental management that may be utilized in the post-conflict UN governed transition economy of Kosovo, a territory with no effective environmental management in the past.


Energji Geotermike ne ndihme te mjedisit*. (2009, May 13). Retrieved September 19, 2010, from*

In this article it is explained how geothermic energy is the most efficient and environmental friendly way of generating electricity. Even thought, establishing a geothermic energy technology is very costly, as it starts operating the cost is depreciated, and it really have very small harmful side effects to the environment. This particular technology can generate energy even from colder places and this can be applicable to Kosovo.

EIE | Environmental Information Exchange. (n.d.). Oxford Brookes University — Oxford Brookes University . Retrieved November 7, 2012, from

This article presents the categories of wastes and the definitions of these wastes.

Energy Projects in Kosovo (2011). Retrieved from :
This is an article written on September 2011, which presents a thorough analysis of the perspectives and roles of the main stakeholders that influence Kosovo's energy sector. It goes on to analyze the country's energy strategy, the energy market model, the privatization process, and the environmental issues. It concludes by addressing some of the open issues of environment, energy efficiency and alternative energy sources.


Finnish Expertise to the Environment Sector of Kosovo, (2011). Embassy of Finland, Pristina. News. Retrieved from
The highlight in this article was the project for the Environment Sector of Kosovo. The project is called a Twinning Project and is an initiative of European Commission to support countries, in this case Kosovo, to improve the environment. When EU Information and Cultural Center in Pristina had a meeting on February, Finnish scientist, Traja Fernandes, presented a Finnish part of this project, mainly concentrated in air quality of Kosovo, telling how this project has been successful in Finland. Furthermore, in the meeting besides they talked about the air quality, also with high importance was mentioned water in Kosovo. The EU member, Austria declared itself that it will help in improving water quality and managing water resources. Also, Latvia had other environmental projects for Kosovo which were successful for Latvia. All these countries had a mutual aim; to help Kosovo, as potential candidate country, meet the EU standards for environment.
Kosovo needs such projects to be implemented as soon as possible, since has problems with air quality and drinkable water indeed. In addition, it is known that these two are essential for a healthy life. If citizens of Kosovo would have access to better drinkable water, they would save lots of money by not buying plastic bottles. Moreover, plastic waste cause damages to ecosystem. Once they are thrown in oceans, lakes, rivers, plastics do not move and eventually become a part of food chain. Basically, we have more bottles just thrown away instead of being recycled. Also, to recycle a bottle takes a long time to be decomposed. Many environmentalists claim that plastic waste is more danger than global warming, since it releases carbon dioxide in atmosphere.

Fresse, D.S, Klitgaard, R., & Pedersen, E. K. (2003/2004). Environmental Management in Kosovo – Heavy Metal emission from Trepca. TekSam. Retrieved September 19, 2011, from
The authors offer some guidelines and valuable lessons on environmental management in Kosova, particularly relevant to side effects caused by lead and zinc mining facilities in the Trepca region. The article argues that the heavy metal emissions from this area represent a high risk level for the local population. In addition to this, the authors continue into claiming that Kosova should focus more on environmental issues, as part of sustainable economic growth. I think this article gives some indication as to what extent environmental issues impact individuals, but it also contributes toward realizing that such concerns need immediate reaction that would lessen the negative consequences from it.
This is a project that focuses on the environmental impact that a huge dormant lead and zinc mining facility - Trepca causes. The project have focused on the pollution that have metals cause to the nearby river.

G* *

*Georgiev, Tomislav. (2011). "Poisoning Kosovo." **Set Times. Retrieved September 20, 2011, from* <||||||\
This article is for one of the major environmental problems that Kosovo faces that ishe pollution from old electrical plants and mine facilities of Obilic. Furthermore, this article tells of the pollution that is above any standard and the effects that it has in people-causing 5000 people to die from cancer each year.

Gazeta Express, "Ferizajasve u kerkohet qe te kene kujdes me ujin e pijes". Retrieved February 2012 from:,15,74624
This news report states that the water in the city of Ferizaj will be contaminated by the melting snow in a few days time. Citizens are advised by doctors from the Public Health Institute to avoid drinking the water that flows from the Ferizaji hydro-station.

Gazeta Express (2011) "Kosova me mjedis të ndotur"  - Retrieved September 18, 2011, from*,15,52298,15,52298
This article is about the environment in Kosovo. It shows the level of pollution in Kosovo. The article was written in the Day of Earth when the president of Kosovo, Atifete Jahjaga, visited Obilic. This is the region where the power plants are located. This article shows that Kosovo is ranked as one of the most polluted states in Europe, and needs an immediate action to avoid the environment destruction. Also in this article it is stated that some laws will be changed in order to have a better environment.

Gazeta LAJM. (2011, April 21) Ndotja nga KEK-u jashtë standardeve. Retrieved September 18, 2011, from
This article is focused on how Kosovo Energy Corporation (KEK) is polluting the air. Experts on Environmental sector believe that KEK is not making enough investments on reducing air pollution. On the other hand, KEK argues that they are implementing environmental projects in the amount of fifty million euros.

Global Fuel Economy Initiative (2010, May 6). Retrieved November 2, 2012, from This article is about energy efficiency in transport in Central and Eastern European countries. There is a little section which talks only about Kosovo.


Hakaj,N.(2006, September 12-15). Air pollution from lignite-based electricity generation in Kosovo. Department of Environment. Retrieved: (February 21, 2012) from:
This is a presentation based on a survey of Kosovo's Department of Environment. This survey shows the energy sector of Kosovo as an enermous polluter, especially KEK which faces structural problems and efficiency along all stages of value adding. According to this survey, the integrated power system consists of two lignite mines Bardh and Mirash, two Thermal power plans (Kosova A, B). Bardh's and Mirash's mines produce 7 million tons/year of lignite. Two biggest basins are Kosova's lignite basin and Dukagjini's basin lignite. This article shows the biggest problems that KEK face today; old plants with exceeded lifetime, high technical and commercial losses and the third biggest problem is high operational cost. Burning these huge amounts of coal causes emmisions to air. According to this presentation, the most important emissions to air from the combustion of lignite are SO2, NOx, CO2, particulate matter, heavy metal. This presentation is worthy to read.

The environmental status of Kosova is dominated by several negative issues that created a bad environmental situation. In general, this Kosova has serious air pollution problems especially by factories and the energy sector. The main problem is lack of regulations or government policies because those factories are enormous polluters which can cause serious problems for people that live in Kosova. The major factor of the air pollution is the energy sector of KEK (Kosovo Energy Corporation) Moreover; KEK is the only energy sector that provides electricity for citizens in Kosova. The fuel of KEK is mainly lignite, which is also one of the most important natural resources in this country.  According to Nezakete Hakaj “The integrated power system consists of two lignite mines Bardh and Mirash, two Thermal Power Plants (TPP) Kosovo A (5units) and B (2 units) with an overall effective capacity of 645 to 710 MW out of 1513 MW of installed capacity, the transmission and distribution networks, a dispatching centre and supply. Currently these two lignite mines supply the two TPPs, with about 7 million tons/year of lignite.” Regarding this information we can assume that 7 million tons per per year of lignite is a significant number, and the government must find a solution as soon as possible.

The article talks about the investigation about the energy sector of Kosovo, particular with Kosovo Energy Corporation (Korporata Energjetike e Kosove), which is divided into two parts A and B called Bardh and Mirash. KEK, is considered one of the most important factors that cause pollution and might cause health problem to the whole population. Because of the divided problems with government policies, KEK lead to three kinds of problem first at all with the problem of high operation cost and commercial losses old plants with extended lifetime. The problem with the power plant Kosovo A might be solved with huge redesign of boilers and about the power plant of Kosovo B in order to solve it is proposed to reduce B2’s NOx emissions. In conclusion, I can assume that this article has a huge importance about our future generation and investing in it might be a great success toward a better future.

Hakaj, N., Balaj, N., & Hoxha, V. (2007, November 23). **Kosova- energy and environmental challenges to **{}{{*}}security_. Retrieved September 19, 2011, from*
This research paper talks about the environmental challenges that Kosovo faces from the pollution that is caused by the old power plants in Obiliq and the dirty coal mines right next to them. It is based on other research that has been done in this field and it is written in English. Its main objective is to reduce the environmental impacts of the energy use and to promote environmental awareness to the people. It also discusses in general the power-plants and the coal mines aside their effects of pollution to the environment.

Hamidi, L., ( September, 2011). **Ndotje enorme e ambientit. (p. 1). Pristina: Zeri. Retrieved September 19, 2011, from*
This newspaper article discuses enormous amounts of air pollution emmited by KEK in Obiliq municipality, near Pristina. It also discusses how some of the residents of Obiliq have had to abandon their houses because of lung diseases emerging in their families caused by ash emission from thermo central B in KEK. Because this part of KEK lacks appropriate filters to reduce ashes, it releases approximately 280 milligram ash, which is above the average levels set by EU standards. The director of hydrometeorology institution of Kosovo, Syle Tahirsylaj, said that they are doing the best in order to maintain and control the quality of air in Kosovo. They have 4 stations which allow them to control the air. Syle Tahirsylaj, says that by the end of this year they will be able to control emissions from KEK and maintain air quality as required by European standards.

Hesser, F. (2000, May 8). - Death, disease belie spring in Kosovo - May 8, 2000. - Breaking News, U.S., World, Weather, Entertainment & Video News. Retrieved October 11, 2012, from

This is an article written by Fran Hesser in 2000. It discusses garbage pollution in Kosovo and the consequences it has. One of the biggest consequences is the outbreak of Tulameria disease from garbage. The author has written the article from his personal experiences in Kosovo, so he discusses the pollution he encountered during his trip to Kosovo. Therefore, he explains how this disease has had major consequences and that it has spread quickly due to the fact that it spreads through garbage.

*Hjortberg, A. S., & Wingqvist, G. Ö. (2008). Kosovo environment and climate analysis. **University of Gothenburg, Retrieved September 16, 2011, from *
This is an analysis done by the authors Hjortberg and Wingqvist as part of the University of Gothenburg, Economics Department, prior to the Swedish collaboration on strategic environmental assessment in Kosovo. It stresses out few key points related to the environment in Kosovo, such as identification of environmental issues and its causes and effects. Moreover, this article continues to elaborate the situation by pointing out the actors on the management of the environment and analyze the so far progress in the issue. This article is very helpful in providing the readers with a general idea of what are the main environmental problems and the flaws in the management of environment. According to the authors, although being a young country, it is important to be cautious since natural resource degradation is negatively affecting Kosovo's economic development. Even though the main purpose of this analysis is to provide information for a better collaboration between these two countries, it could be easily used for any research conducted about the Kosovo's environment.

*Hyseni, V. (2009, December 8). | Rajoni | Kosova dhe problemet e klimës. **BBC - Homepage. Retrieved September 17, 2011, from*
This is an online article titled "Kosovo and Climate Problems" and it written in Albanian by the author Violeta Hyseni, published in BBC Albanian website. The article focuses on the impact of Kosovo in the Global Warming and besides being a small country it still contributes to the problem of Global Warming. The article also emphasizes the case of giant thermo centrals that release a high volume of CO2 and the negative effects of this discharge to the community and surrounding environment. Some of the serious problems of Kosovo's environment such as: lack of green spaces, deforestation, and energy production are also mentioned. There are also some surveys included where citizens clearly express their worries about Kosovo's environment. However, by interviewing people the journalist find out that although a small country, Kosovo does not contribute to much on Global Warming but its officials has to take care about the community health by making improvements in most prominent fields of energy and industry. On the other hand, environmentalists argue that the environmental issues have been left aside in Kosovo because of the huge economic problems that the country is facing.

Halili, Gashi, F. A. (2009). National Background Report on Environmental Research for Kosovo.Retrieved from
"National background report on environmental research for Kosovo" provides sufficient data on what the environmental problems in Kosovo are and what we as citizens have to do in order to protect and improve the environmental conditions in Kosovo.
The report includes key facts and figures concerning policy framework, as well as short overview of main drivers of environmental research, research infrastructure and main environmental sectors in Kosovo. In order to examine environmental research capacities, the authors have used a SWOT analysis technique. A set of environmental research priorities for Kosovo are also selected and explained in it.
Environmental Research Report for Kosovo (under UNSCR 1244) indicates that Kosovo has inherited a large number of environmental problems, accumulated for decades as a consequence of uncontrolled use of natural and mineral resources, high density of the population, and the presence of economic activities with a strong environmental impact, such as agriculture, electricity and mining, and urban dwelling coupled with high level of pollution. The tremendous environmental threatens and degradation are the main reason to established research resources to solve environmental problems in order to improve, protect and restore natural and man-made environment in Kosovo.
The final Strategic Research Agenda identified a set of environmental research priorities for Kosovo selected from different environmental sectors and thematic issues driven by Environmental Strategy for Kosovo and Kosovo Environmental Action Plan 2006-2010 developed by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning. The environment Strategic Research Agenda is intended to contribute to the shaping of future EU-World Bank research co-operation through relevant European Commission research policies and funding programs in a way that meets the interests and actual needs of regional environmental research area.

Kosovo has inherited a large number of environmental problems, accumulated for decades as a consequence of uncontrolled use of natural and mineral resources, high density of the population, and the presence of economic activities with a strong environmental impact, such as agriculture, electricity and mining, and urban dwelling coupled with high level of pollution. The tremendous environmental threatens and degradation are the main reason to established research resources to solve environmental problems in order to improve, protect and restore natural and man-made environment in Kosovo.
This study focuses on the study of Kosovo laws regarding environmental issues and other related fields. It describes the natural resources of Kosovo with detailed statistics and the environmental factors that have direct effects on them. Individual actors like KEK and other institutions or actions that harm the environment were studied in the paper. Moreover, the article focuses more on the researches made on different environmental issues in Kosovo and the budget allocated for research in this field from the Kosovo Government.

Hall, S., & Shaw, C. (1999, July 3). Troops 'may face gulf syndrome'. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved September 18, 2011, from
This particular news article focused on the effects the bombings in Kosovo may have. The article spoke about illegal use of Uranium and related the effects it could potentially have to those of the Gulf War. The matter was interesting however the article is relatively old and whether or not the effects were comparable to the Gulf War ones in reality, is unclear. The most effective part of the article however, was the fact that this is not an environmental issue to Kosovo alone. Rather, it is larger than that and could potentially affect all of the Balkans.

Halili, F., & Gashi, A. (n.d.). NATIONAL BACKGROUND REPORT ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH FOR KOSOVO. Retrieved September 19, 2011, from www.wbc-
This article focuses in another environmental issue which is uncontrolled cutting of forest. Number of forests were destroyed because of the fires that happened in Peja, Gjilan and Prishtina which caused to 545 damaged ha. According to Mr. Halili that has caused excessive rainfall and floods to freely distribute to other surfaces and areas therefore the floods created were spread to agricultural land and dwelling areas. Another factor causing that is " illegal logging" caused by mankind using it for private purposes and never replacing them.

Hajredini, E. (2011). Kosovo. Summary of climate change dimensions. Retrieved from
This report provides a general description of forestry conditions in Kosovo, as well the impact of global climate change on forestry. The report offer general information about Kosovo and also information about forestry and biodiversity. It discusses the fact that Kosovo is starting the preparations of an action plan for forest protection; however there is an urgent need for law enforcement.

Hoxha, V. (December 2010). Development of an Air Quality Monitoring Network for Kosovo. Prishtine: Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, Department of Environment.
The article in general is related to air quality monitoring in Kosovo. It also has a special focus on systematic pollution that causes healthy issues regarding Ferronikel factory in Drenas. It remind us with the effects of toxins emission from Ferronikel and the re-activation of it appears a serious environmental issue for the community.


I love clean Kosovo, UNDP (2011), Retrieved from,26,1041
Article on the UNDP official website, presented the campaign I love Kosovo, In order to raise people's awareness of environmental issues and to encourage eco-friendly practices. This event, funded by UNV and UNDP, took place during World Environment Day on the 5th June 2011 in Germia Park, well-known as the favorite destination of Pristina/Prishtina inhabitants for walking and hiking in nature just outside the city.

Islami, J. (2011, August 8). Nxënësit planifikojnë sistem riciklimi për Kosovën. In Basic Education Program in Kosovo [Students plan of a recycling system for Kosovo]. Retrieved September 18, 2011, from USAID website:
In this article the author, J. Ismaili, explains how public opinion plays a great role in the environmental issues. Based on the USAID's program for primary and secondary schools, the environmental awareness should be increased through the children of younger ages, firstly. They organized a competition on designing the best plastic bottle compressor, so that students can organize the plastic garbage in the schools and sell it to the recycling companies. This way USAID plans to educate a whole generation toward environmental issues, and increase their awareness about harmful activities in the environment.

Islami, J. (2011, October). USAID organizon konferencë për të filluar riciklimin në Kosovë. Retrieved from
In this article the author tells us about a conference that has been held by USAID. This conference was about making people aware about toxic garbage's in rural areas of Kosovo.
this conference was supported by MASHT and MMPH the name of the conference was "basic education."  Different NGO's and Municipalities came to an agreement that building recycling centers was something achievable. 


Isufi, Florim, Gani Gashi, Ibrahim Ramadani, and Shpejtim Bulliqi. "Electric Power, Environmental Problem in Kosovo." (2007). Print.
This paper starts by giving general information about Kosovo's main sources of energy, its power plants capacities, and it makes comparisons with neighbor states. As mentioned in the paper the main concerns tend to be the destructing environment, and the health of people living in Obilic and Hade. Authors point to dust as the main variable indicating these changes. But, also the article brings up also what are the effects of these environmental issues in socio economic sense. So, as a result we have change in the use of land, demography changes, population migrations, etc.

Iniciativa Kosovare per Stabilitet. (2009).Thinking green. (p. 32). Prishtine: Iniciativa Kosovare per Stabilitet.Retrieved from
'Thinking Green' presents a picture of the environmental situation in Kosova today and the way the national and municipal governments handle it, particularly in the municipalities of Prishtina and Obiliq. It touches the issues of air and water pollution in more details, though it talks generally about environmental degradation. Further this paper analyzes the legal framework for environmental issues.



Kasapolli, A. (2011, March 4). Evropa e Lirë. Ndotja kërcënon banorët e Obiliqit - Radio Evropa e Lirë © 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2011, from article deals with air pollution engendered by KEK, which is the main electricity supplier in the country. During 2011, 14 cases with cancer were discovered because of air pollution. This represents an increase compared to 2010. Also, officials from the power plant claim that they have started to work on projects that cost approximately 50 million in order to prevent damages caused by air pollution.

This online article was written by Ariana Kasapolli-Selani, in Albanian language. In this article the author explains how Power plants are affecting peoples’ lives.In last year 14 persons were struggling with cancer, and one of the causes of this disease is considered to be the high pollution of the environment, which is caused by power plants. The author has visited the “Family Medicine Center” to know the situation of the citizens in Obiliq. One of the doctors there, was very upset about the situation of the citizens, she said that “lots of people are visiting medicine center, while the number of people with cancer is increasing every year”. Moreover, the head of the municipality expresses his concerns for his own citizens, but, he explains that this issue belongs to the government and not to them because they don’t have the budget to make any possible solution. However, the spokesman for the Kosovo Energy Corporation informs the citizens that this issue will be solved in 2013 after finishing the project that they are implementing.  We hope that this big issue will be solved and people of Obiliq will finally breathe fresh air.

Krasniqi, I., Fejza, I., Avdullahi, S., Vasjari, M., Vaso, K., Krasniqi, K., & Behrami, A. (2010). Level of heavy metals and the impact of anthropogenic pollution on some alternative springs in drenica and mitrovica zone - kosovo. Journal of International Environmental Application and Science, 5(2), 186-194. Retrieved from   

This paper studies the quality status of drinking water for the five alternative springs in Drenica and Mitrovica zone. There have been determined seven water physical and chemical parameters and the levels of eight heavy metals Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. In parallel with the determination of physical and chemical values, we have also determined anthropogenic pollution (chemical and technological processes at "FERONIKEL" Smelter in Drenas). The determination of physical and chemical parameters had been carried out immediately after water sampling in springs, while the identification of levels of heavy metals had-been made at the National Public Health Institution in Pristine by Spectrophotometer of Atomic Absorption in the flame of low level of the detection expressed in ìg/ml or ppm. A calibrating curve on ppm levels of detection had been created for each metal and then the sample absorbance had been made. The research was carried out during the two seasons of summer-winter 2007-2008. The outcomes of physicalchemical parameters obtained for five springs are a result of average values permitted, and as for identified levels of heavy metals, some of them exceed MPV (maximum permitted value) of the WHO's standards with all springs. Heavy metals result in higher levels than permitted by the World Health Organization (WHO's) standards are Ni, Pb, Mn and Cr. The excess of permitted levels of the WHO with these springs may be attributed to geomorphologic structure and geochemical phone and anthropogenic pollution (. The fifth up-coming spring examined "Kroi i Fshatit", located in Zhazhe results in very high levels of Ni, Pb and Mn, and same may not be used for drinking by the Community, even in emergent cases.

Krasniqi-Veseli, L. (2012, May 12). Kosovë: Mjedis i degraduar. Evropa e Lirë - Radio Evropa e Lirë. Retrieved September 12, 2012, from

This article briefly describes the situation of the environmental degradation in our country.  It focuses on the environmental situation in the recent years.  The article firstly starts by introducing Kosovo’s main environmental problems such as the pollution of air, water and land. The article includes a statement made by the director of the Environmental Center in Kosovo, Zeqir Veselaj who states that the environmental situation is worsening every day and it is far from the European standards. Moreover, he states that the laws implemented by the Kosovo government are in compliance with theh standards imposed by the EU but their implementation has not started and most likely it will not start in the near future. The article goes on by presenting some of the possible solutions for the problem such as: building a new power plant, the privatization of KEK and so on.

Krasniqi-Veseli, L. (7 Nov. 2011)  "Rreziku Nga Ndotja E Ambientit Në Kosovë." Radio Evropa E Lirë. N.p.  Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <>.

This artice, written by Luljeta Krasniqi – Veseli for the website “Evropa e Lirë” argues about the environment issues that Kosovo is currently facing and it describes the reasons why do these issues happen.  She tries to prove that the main risk of Kosovo’s air pollution is caused by the power plants, which according to her take a massive ground area, thus giving more negatives than positives to the environment.

Koha Ditore (2012, October 9) Shtimjanka river becomes a garbage disposal. Retrieved October, 15, 2012 from


The municipality of Shtimja in partnership with the Local Government Administration Ministry in 2012 has build the river of Shtimjaka for 200 thousand euros, but in a very short time, the river has become a garbage disposal because of the lack of maintenance. Throughout the article, Shtimja residents share their concerns about this occurrence. On the other side, Rrahman Jakupi, the deputy of Shtimja municipality says for the magazine that they will soon contract a company to do the maintenance. He hopes that nobody is disposing wastewater in the river but he doesn’t exclude the possibility. He says that if somebody is doing it, its Inspectoriat Departament responsibility to enforce the law.

Kosovapress (2012), “Challenge of trading industrial waste” Retrieved  October, 25 2012 from <,3,146128>

By opening the workshop, the acting executive director of American Chamber of Commerce, Arian Zeka said that the industrial waste is a problem for environment, however at the same time they can be profitable as well, thus this was the objective of ACCK to initiate the discussion on trading the industrial waste.In the workshop, the representatives of private and public sector discussed over the past practices, categorization of waste and the way of treating them. The joint conclusion in the meeting was that this issue is not well regulated in the legal aspect and it should be treated by the respective ministries, as the industrial waste that can be profitable, if they are treated in appropriate way, they present high economic potential and they would be important generator of a considerable number of jobs and incomes, which could be used for rehabilitation of contaminated spaces. The participants emphasized as well the need to shorten the procedures of trading industrial waste.

Kosova me mjedisin më të degraduar në Evropë. (2012, May 12). Koha Ditore. Retrieved from:,13,99158

This is an article about air pollution in Kosovo. It lists the three main air pollutants and discusses the bad air quality in Kosovo and the consequences of this pollution on the lives of Kosovo’s citizens.

Kosovo Environmental Protection Agency (2009), “The State of Waste in Kosovo 2008 Report” Retrieved on November 11, 2012 from ' '

This report was published in 2008 and was conducted by the Kosovo Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Ministry of Environmental and Spatial Planning. It presents statistics and different data on the generation of wastes in Kosovo which includes how the wastes are generated, where they come from, how much is generated and so on.

Kosovarë, urdhëroni vetura të vjetra! (2011, June 23). KOHAnet. Retrieved from,3,59785

This article talks about the new import criteria of cars in Kosovo. It says that the government loosened those criterias in 2011 in order to receive 20 mio. euros more.


Leonora, A. (2011, September 25) "Lumi i Shkatërrimit të Madh" Gazeta Jeta në Kosovë. Retrieved 'January 10, 2012' , from,978,92 This article talks about an environmental problem – illegal exploitation of sand from the river banks in Kosovo. This environmental problem in Kosovo is probably one of the most important ones since it is spread all around Kosovo, and it is causing deaths and environmental degradation. This article is mainly focused in the degradation made along the banks of the river "Drini I Bardhë". Drini I Bardhë is the longest river in Kosovo (122 km long) and flows through the Western part of Kosovo. It is the most damaged river in Kosovo, and the deviations that are made in its banks are reflected in the ecosystem, respectively damaging the fertile land areas and water supply system. Moreover, there is an increased danger of floods. The article also includes some legal acts and decision that were made to stop this environmental degradation; however, the good results are not achieved yet.

Lulaj, L. (2011). "Mbeturinat, problem për kryeqytetasit". Gazeta 'Zëri'. Retrieved 'September 19, 2011', from
This is an article published in our daily newspaper "Zëri" called "Waste, a problem for people in the capital city".
The article discusses the problem of waste and the lack of containers to fulfill the needs of the citizens. Another problem discussed in this article is that of garbage being thrown everywhere (roads, parks, in front of the buildings) which is very harmful for the health of the people, especially in these periods of heat. The article includes also a short interview with the director of the company "Pastrimi"; a company collecting the waste in the city. Some opinions from citizens are also included in this article.


Mainhardt, H., Sinani, N. (2012, August).  Draft Country Environmental Analysis Fails to Account for Significant Pollution Costs. Retrieved from: article can be classified as an addition to the World Bank Report on current Environmental issues in Kosovo. This article has identified key issues that this report does not cover or include, thus it has come so far as to lay out all the things that are missing.The World Bank report addresses Environmental issue costs and how much of a strain to the country they are, however have forgotten or neglected certain extra costs. This analysis says that the extra costs of environmental pollution are: lack of a comparison basis for all environmental pollution sources, underestimation of air pollution health costs, underestimation of environmental pollution, underestimation of water supply costs, underestimation of agricultural costs, underestimation of the mercury impact costs, and lack of any calculation of climate change costs.Due to not including such important costs, as the ones mentioned above, the BIC regards the World Bank Report as ‘failing’ to account for significant costs that account for environmental pollution.  In addition, this article includes recommendations drafted by the Institute for Development Policy (INDEP), which are recommendations on what the World Bank should include in the report. 

Margesson, R. (2000, May 9). Kosovo casualty: environment. Christian Science Monitor. p. 11. Retrieved from EBSCOhost..
This article explains in a very neutral way what kind of environmental issues Kosova faces after the war. It states that Kosovars did not have a history of environmental protection because of the Milosevic-Regime. Especially it is mentioned that we do have a lot of air pollution and garbage around. This comes also from the dramatic population growth in Prishtina. What matters the most is actually that they are some campaigns for environmental protection which are being introduced to the population by foreigners.

Mblidhen 20 mijë tonë mbeturina . (2012, May 24). Mblidhen 20 mijë tonë mbeturina << Lajme- Telegrafi. Retrieved October 11, 2012, from

This article was written in May, 2012. It describes the results of the initiative to clean Kosovo. The fact that 20 thousand tons of garbage has been collected emphasizes the fact of the big spread of garbage in our country. It also emphasizes the importance of taking initiatives in order to collect garbage, and clean up the environment.

Mbeturinat Industriale. (n.d.). Agjensioni per Mbrojtjen e Mjedisit te Kosoves. Retrieved October 24, 2012, from

This article includes a table where a list of hazardous wastes present in Kosovo, the location where these wastes are found and the quantity in which they can be found. The huge amounts of these wastes depict the severity of the situation of hazardous wastes. However, the table includes data only up to 2006.

Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning. (n.d.). Construction of the facility for temporary storage of hazardous waste. Retrieved from,8,240 This web page contains only a few information; however, it is important because it talks about something that is not finished yet.

*Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, (2003). **Kosovo state of the environment report. Prishtina: Retrieved from*
The report seeks to shed light on major environmental issues in Kosovo in hopes that they will draw attention and be addressed in the near future. The authors emphasize that the uncontrolled development in Kosovo is mostly a result of a nonexistent environmental regime. They focus on water quality, diversity, forestry, energy production as well as the environmental outcomes of mining, namely, the elevated level of atmospheric lead.
This report was prepared from the responsible ministry for environmental issues in Kosovo. Overall, it describes the current difficulties the country face regarding the environment. Factors like unemployment, macroeconomic, agriculture and other indicators were taken into account to better overview the current conditions in Kosovo.

Ministry of Environment and Spatial planning of Kosova (April, 2003)._ Kosovo State of the Environment Report. Retrieved 18 September, 2011 from:
This is a report done by Government of Kosovo (Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning) which talks about many environmental issues of Kosova such as: population of Kosova (gender, density, culture, and religion), geography, agriculture, economic development, water pollution, environmental pollution energetic problems, unemployment, mining, etc. This is very valuable report showing us very problematic issues that Kosova had in the past and the reasons why these problems are still occurring our country.

Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning. (April 26, 2003). Kosovo state of the environment report. Retrieved from website:

This is a report about Kosovo’s Environment released by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning. It was written in 2003 and it’s in English. The report is quite general and it includes different environmental issues. What I paid attention to is the water quality in Kosovo and the waste. There are mentioned rivers of large municipalities which are heavily polluted and cannot be used for water supply. Except that the water is polluted, there is also a problem in the water supply. Some people are forced to find a way to get water supply because only 44 % of the population have access to the water distribution system. This situation is even worse in the rural areas.

Another important problem that our country faces and that is mentioned in the report is the waste. According to the report, some of the reasons that we have all this waste are: not controlling the urban waste and its transportation, disinterest to minimize it and it’s dangerousness, and the lack of processing and recycling it. As a result of the industrial sector hazardous waste and hazardous materials are present in our country.

Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, & Molano, S. (2002). **Environmental pollution impact in the health of the citizens of Kosovo. Retrieved October 2, 2011, from UNMIK website:
This page discusses briefly the impacts of the pollution on the health of the citizens of Kosovo with many statistics and informative graphs.

This link will take you to the PDF document where you can see an Action Plan for Kosovo Environment from 2006 to 2010

Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning.(2003) *{{color:#333333}}Kosovo State of The Environment Report{}. Rep. UNMIK. Retrieved 19 Sept. 2011. * <[
This is the link to UNMIK report on environmental issues in Kosovo from 2003. It doesn't contain the latest info, but it might be useful for comparing the information from that time with presents ones.

Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning (April, 2006). Kosovo Environmental Action Plan 2006 – 2010. Retrieved 18 September, 2011 from _ _
This is a plan prepared by Government of Kosova which describes some of the methodologies and strategies that KEAP (Kosova Environmental Action Plan) should do in order to solve environmental problems that our society is facing with such as pollution management, air quality management, waste management, health management. There are also included some other fields that are directly related to the society: energy, industry, transportation, agriculture, communication, technology, etc.

Ministry Of Environment and Spatial Planning, Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Kosovo's state of water. 120. Retrieved from
The document is a report on water supply in Kosovo, including water resources, quality and other related information and measurements concerning the water situation. The report is in Albanian and was published by the Kosovo's Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning. It was published in 2010, and contains data and measurements mostly from 2007-2009. The report, divided in chapters, presents general information about Kosovo, geographical position, hydro-map, demographics etc.; the legal and institutional framework regarding the water sector; water resources, usage, pollution and other related information and concerns. The data for the report are gathered from institutions that monitor water quality, manage water supply, and government and non-government institutions that are related to the water sector. There are also data from other related publications. The report contains empirical data from monitoring which may be useful in comparing and reaching conclusions regarding pollution.
Kosovo State of the Environment Report is a report conducted in 2003 by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, giving a general picture about Kosovo in the year 2003 including geography and climate, population, economy, agriculture, water and etc.
It has a focus on environment and hazardous waste and materials, giving statistical information on the environmental pollution impact in the health of the citizens of Kosovo. All of the information is pointing us in the right direction, where do we have to go next and what do we have to do in order to clean the environment and create a healthier environment.

Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning (2006, April). Kosovo Environmental Action Plan 2006-2010. Prishtinë. Retrieved from
This is a report done by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning o Kosova and was financed by the Swedish Government. This is a strategic plan which describes the environmental issues that Kosova currently faces. Moreover it also gives detailed explanation on the steps that the ministry is going to follow through out these years 2006-2010.

Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, Environmental Protection Division "Kosova- Energy and Environmental Challenges to Security" (November, 2007). Retrieved October
22, 2011 from
This report talks about how environmental status of Kosovo is dominated by a range of issues including polluted TIR, soil and water and poor infrastructure management. The author also argues that in there was a environmental protection regime in the past. It also explains how Kosova Strategy of Energy of and Kosova Development Strategy and Action Plans, recognizes the opportunities for improving environmental goals through :Reducing environmental impacts of energy use and promote environmental awareness in the operation of the energy industry.
*Kosovo Environment and Climate Analysis. (n.d.). **sida. Retrieved September 19, 2011, from*
This Kosovo Environment and Climate Change Analysis (ECCA) serves as a point of departure for a discussion on how environment and climate change issues can be integrated in the Swedish cooperation strategy with Kosovo. Environment and Climate is one of three thematic priorities set by the government of Sweden for its development cooperation, and includes four focus areas: (i) adaptation to climate change; (ii) energy; (iii) environment and security; and (iv).

Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, "Kosovo State of the Environmental Report" Retrieved from
This report is conducted by experts and it focuses on major environmental issues in Kosovo. This report was written in 2003, and the researchers have prioritized environment issues that have to be solved first in Kosovo, so it talks about different kinds of issues. The main idea of this report was to inform people about these issues, so that we have an idea what has to be solved first and find solutions and informations about these problems.

It is a report about the status of environment in Kosovo written, by Provisional Institutions of Self-governance, specifically by the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning. This report includes field of geography, demography, and climate. Problems and issues on population, economy, agriculture, water, forestry, energy, air, waste. Moreover it takes a look on a crucial issue such as pollution which is a concern to health impacts and environmental impacts, and knowing that the main source of pollution comes from energy production. Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning of Provisional Institutions of Kosova is the author of this report, including its experts of fields mentioned above

(1999) Military Action,* {}Tim Youngs,{} {}Mark Oakes,{} {}Paul Bowers,{} {}Mick Hillyard.* Library, Retrieved from
This article talks about the chemicals released in the atmosphere during the war (1999) in Kosovo, which include not only conventional pollutants, but also chemicals that are hazardous to health. This article can be very useful, especially because it talks about PCB(Polychlorinated biphenyl) which is a dangerous man-made chemical. PCB was banned in the US in 1979 because of its toxicity and black or yellow waxy solids. It has been used earlier in industrial and commercial applications including electrical, heat transfer, and hydraulic equipment; it is used as dielectric and coolant fluids, like transformers, capacitors and electric motors. However, it is still used in power transformers by KEK. Not many sources could be found about PCB use in Kosovo, as the use of this hazardous chemical is totally being ignored.

Megjithë Përparimet, Ndotja E Mjedisit Tejkalon Normat E Lejuara. Koha Net, 19 Aug. 2012. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <>.

“Despite all the improvements, the pollutions exceeds all the allowed norms.” This article was published in an online portal called Koha Net on August 19th, 2012, and discusses the recent environmental situation that Kosovo is in as a result of the industry. This article begins by stating that the alarming environmental conditions and the high rates of pollution are representing a very big danger for our society. It is mentioned that the biggest polluters are considered to be “Ferronikeli” which is a nickel producing company that was privatized in 2004-2005, and “Sharrcem” which is a cement manufacturing company. Furthermore, this article states that according to the Ministry of Environment “Sharrcem” has advanced its technology aiming to decrease the environmental pollution, and that it has recently installed new filters which will prevent air pollution and gas emissions. But it is said, that these kinds of investments have not been made by “KEK” and “Ferronikeli,” even though, both of them have undertaken initiatives in that direction.”

MMPH rikujton ndalesat për “varrezat” e automjeteve. (2012, September 6). KOHAnet. Retrieved from,3,114226

This article is about some administrative guidelines which were issued by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planification on the 6th of September, 2012. The guidelines are meant to solve the problems created by cars that are out of order. Furthermore, it emphasizes the need for recycling those cars in order to improve the environment in Kosovo.

Musliu, Jeton. (September 21, 2011). Living Under the Shadow of Death. Gazeta Jeta në Kosovë. Retrieved on September 8th, 2012 from,978,39

“Living Under the Shadow of Death” is a newspaper article that was published in the local newspaper, Jeta në Kosovë, just over a year ago. It was written by the acclaimed, Pristina-based journalist, Jeton Musliu. It was originally written and published in Albanian language; however, this review is of the version that was translated to English language. Musliu has written and worked for several different newspapers and new companies, covering stories in both Pristina and other parts of the Balkans. He has also traveled to other European countries to research and work on various news stories and articles. In this particular article, Musliu focused on the village and villagers of Dardhishtë, which is near to Obiliq, another fairly small village, outside of Pristina and very close to the KEK power plants.

In the article, Jeton Musliu focuses on the deadly amounts of pollution that are emitted by the KEK coal-fired power plant, known as Kosovo A. This power plant is very old and outdated and it was built long before safety regulations were considered to be a serious concern. The plant was supposed to be closed down between 2015 and 2017, so that Kosovo could begin to work towards the European Union’s standards and limits on Carbon emissions. However, according to this article, this idea of closing down Kosovo A power plant has “unofficially” been rejected, and KEK plans to keep the plant open until 2025. Musliu chose to visit the village of Dardhishtë and talk with the people who live there for this story because they are the people who are most endangered and most harmfully affected by the use of the coal-fired power plant and by KEK’s negligent activities and decisions. Many if not most, of these villagers include KEK employees and their families, which is one reason why they live within clear sight of the plant. Doctor Musli Mehaj, a specialist at the Institute of Medicine of Labor, believes Dardhishtë to be the most dangerous place to live in relation to the Kosovo A power plant. He says that they see between 200 and 300 patients a day, mostly KEK employees and their families, all suffering from repertory problems, and some with other illnesses as well. Of all of Kosovo, Dardhishtë has the highest rate of people who are affected by cancer. The issues of extreme air pollution, discussed in this article are very important because they are having deadly effects on the people living in villages near to the power plant. If the Kosovo A power plant is not closed down, the terribly polluted air will continue causing disease and death. This article is also something to consider in regards to the push to build a new coal-fired power plant in the corresponding area.


Nannoni , F., Protano, G., & Riccobono, F. (2011). Uptake and bioaccumulation of heavy elements by two earthworm species from a smelter contaminated area in northern Kosovo. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43(12), 2359--2367. Retrieved from

As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn concentrations were determined in two earthworm species (Allolobophora rosea and Nicodrilus caliginosus) from a mining and industrial area in northern Kosovo and compared with their contents in the bulk soil and the main soil fractions. Earthworm specimens were collected at fifteen sites located at different distances from a Pb--Zn smelter along a gradient of decreasing contamination. Individuals of A. rosea and N. caliginosus showed similar tissue levels of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn, suggesting that earthworm species belonging to the same eco-physiological group have a similar propensity to uptake and bioaccumulate heavy elements. Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn concentrations in both earthworm species were positively correlated with the respective total soil contents and generally decreased with distance from the smelter. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) revealed that Cd and Zn were the only elements bioaccumulated by earthworms. The rank order of BAF values for both species was as follows: Cd > > Zn > > Cu > As = Pb = Sb. The absorption of Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn by earthworms mostly depended on the extractable, reducible and oxidable soil fractions, suggesting that the intestine is likely the most important uptake route. The extractable soil fraction constantly influenced the uptake of these heavy elements, whereas the reducible fraction was important mainly for Pb and Zn. The water soluble fraction had an important role especially for the most mobile heavy elements such as Cd and Zn, suggesting that dermal uptake is not negligible. As a whole, the analytical data indicate that soil fractionation patterns influence the uptake of heavy elements by earthworms, and the extractable fraction is a good predictor of heavy element bioavailability to these invertebrates in soil.

Nannoni , F., Protano, G., & Riccobono, F. (2011). Fractionation and geochemical mobility of heavy elements in soils of a mining area in northern kosovo. Geoderma, 161(1-2), 63-73. Retrieved from  

This paper reports the results of a geochemical study focusing on the partitioning of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn in soils of the Kosovska Mitrovica mining area in northern Kosovo. The main objective was to define the element mobility in soil and potential bioavailability in relation to soil contamination levels. The Kosovska Mitrovica area is one of the main industrial sites in the former Yugoslavia and a world-class mining district in Europe. Extensive and locally very marked contamination mainly by Pb, Zn, Cd and Sb was found in soils, with the highest concentrations measured close to the Zvecan smelter. The study of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn partitioning in the water soluble, extractable with 0.11 M acetic acid, reducible, oxidable and residual fractions of soils revealed that Pb was mainly associated with the reducible fraction, Cd with the extractable and reducible fractions, and As, Cu, Sb and Zn with the residual fraction. Heavy element fractionation in contaminated soils was influenced by the presence of owner mineralogical phases related to the emissions of the Zvecan smelter and to materials windborne from mining and industrial dumps, as well as originated by in situ processes. The order of mobility of these heavy elements in contaminated soils resulted as follows: Cd » Zn » Pb » Sb > As > Cu. Anthropogenic amounts of heavy elements were distributed in all soil fractions, with the most relevant enrichments in the extractable and reducible ones. Anthropogenic inputs were responsible for some deviations from natural fractionation, mainly for Pb, Zn and Cd. A significant amount of Cd, Pb and Zn in contaminated soils was rather mobile, which suggests that these elements can be readily available to plants and soil organisms.

Nafta që futet në Kosovë, shkakton kancerin. (2012, July 5). KOHAnet. Retrieved from,13,105990

This short article is about the quality of the importet fuels in Kosovo and its effects on the health of the public.

Neslen, A. (2011, September 9). Greens alarmed as EU lobbies for Kosovo coal plant | EurActiv. EurActiv | European Union Information Website (EU and Europe). Retrieved September 18, 2011, from
This is an article where is shown a letter, which was sent by Mark Johnson, the World Wildlife Fund's senior policy advisor. He asks the members of European Union to help Kosovo built a new power plant because this is the only way to improve Kosovo's environmental outcomes. He says that this power plant would be less polluting than the existing one, but the environmentalists disagree. They say that this won't improve Kosovo's environment outcomes and would not change the Carbon (CO2) emission.
Kosovo C' would be less polluting than the existing 'Kosovo A' plant, as so enable Pristina to meet its obligations under the Energy Community Treaty but also to fulfill the requirements of the EU's Large Combustion Plant Directive.
If the Bank continue its involvement in the New Kosovo Power Plant its the only way to improve Kosovo's environmental outcomes. Europe should be using all of its powers to help Kosovo and its neighbors a path towards eventual European integration.
Lignite is a form of coal which high levels of CO2.The European Bank of Reconstruction and Development and European Investment Bank are together providing €770 million of loans to a lignite coal plant.

Ndotja e ambientit - Armik i Kosoves. (2012, April 28). Retrieved September 12 2012, from,13,97366
This newspaper article is talking about the environment issue in Kosovo which, day after day, is getting more and more serious. Some of the factors causing this problem are: the uncontrolled dumping of waste, the cutting of trees, the occupation of fertile land with buildings, the destruction of river banks, the phenomenon of burning industrial waste, and in particular the burning of tires for the 1st of May in Kosovo.

Nimani, A. (Oct 11, 2011). Kosovo for the first time fines industry polluter - Yahoo! News UK. In Kosovo for the first time fines industry polluter. Retrieved September 12, 2012, from

It informs readers about a fine that was issued by the magistrate court in Drenas for the company Ferronikeli. As the title of the article illustrates, this was the first time a major polluter received a fine from a Kosovo court since the declaration of independence in 2008. Ferronikeli, which is one of the biggest nickel producers in the region, received the fine because it did not comply with environment protection rules and even violating them by polluting the water and air in central Kosovo. It illustrates that there has much to be done in Kosovo in order to create a sustainable environment that has an acceptable level of pollution. The mere fact that it needed more than three years after the independence to fine a giant polluter as Ferronikeli suggests that the environment seems not to have been a major priority of the relevant authorities.



Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe OSCE Mission in Kosovo. Lead contamination in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica affecting the Roma community. Retrieved from
"The air in Mitrovica has hundreds of times more than the iron powder is permissible, whereby statistics, Ibar edge city is among the most polluted cities in Europe", it was  said in the open debate to representatives of NGOs, held in north Mitrovica. Representative of the Centre for the development of local environments said that one of the main positions emerging from this debate is that everyone should be aware of the importance of preserving the environment. Various reports have specified that this city contains very high amounts of lead in the air. This was confirmed after the return of some of KFOR soldiers from Scandinavian countries where, after analysis has emerged that high amount of lead in the blood endangers their lives. Pollution was confirmed a few weeks ago the Ministry of Environment through a study according to which Kosovo ground water and air is heavily polluted and should be started as soon as possible to protect their lives.

OSCE. (2008). Water supply issues in kosovo. Retrieved from
This Research Paper written by the OSCE´s Monitoring Department deals with the Water supply issues that are present in Kosovo. It tells about water shortages that exists in Kosovo, as no household is provide with water for 24 hours, and it talks about the water management problems that exist. The article also deals with the future competences for water management and supply, including the financial and political problems that regard the realization of these projects. The article is originally written in eglish.


Prathumratana, L., Kim, R., & Woong Kim, K. (2008, November). Heavy metal contamination of the mining and smelting district in mitrovica, kosovo. Proceedings of the international symposia on geoscience resources and environments of asian terranes, Bangkok, Thailand. Retreived from

Mitrovica had the largest metallurgic and mining complex (Trepca) in Europe which commenced activities in 1993 with the extraction of lead, cadmium and zinc. Many industrial plants existed in the complex such as lead smelter, fertilizer production plant, refinery, battery factory, zinc electrolysis facility and a sulfuric acid plant. The significant amount of heavy metal pollutants were released to the surrounding area including populated residential areas and therefore associated with human health risk. The minority communities in three refugee camps in Mitrovica, Kosovo have been significantly exposed to environmental lead originated from large-scale mining and smelting industries since 1999. Even the smelter was closed down in 2000 by United Nations but the impacts of the abandoned mining dumps, tailing dams are still left behind. The initial risk assessment by WHO in 2004 indicated children’s blood lead levels in these communities are dangerously high. Soil contamination due to historical and ongoing pollution from these complexes is also considered as a key source of exposure. A systematic investigation for the soil contamination by lead and other heavy metals was performed in year 2006. Most soil samples contain significantly high lead amount exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency standard of 400 mg kg-1. The highest amount of lead, 151,000 mg kg-1 with the average of 134,000 mg kg-1 was found in the sample close to the former smelter. Soil lead existed as relatively high amount of bioavailability fraction which may be confirmed with the recent study that no lead bearing phases could be observed directly by XRD. The resemble trend of lead isotope ratios (206Pb/207Pb) in tailings (1.175+0.003), soils from former smelter (1.175+0.014) and from the relocated area (1.173+0.011) revealed that tailings may be one source of lead. However, sustainable monitoring of environmental condition and continuous risk assessment are required to prevent lead and other heavy metal exposure in this area.

Pfeiffer, N. (2009). Kosovo and climate change. Prishtine: Balkan Investigative Reporting Network.Retrieved from
This article talks about climate change in Kosovo and it is said that "Kosovo is very small country and it has continental climate; it has warm summers and could winters." In this article it is also said that Kosovo have gone and experienced changing weathers due to floods and droughts. Due to climate change; 1.the warmer climate will reduce the availability for basic needs or elementary needs such as water for human use, food and security, and energy.2.Health risks warmer climate; illness, infectious diseases and malnutrition.
*"Preparatory Assistance to Sustainable Development in Dragas." **UNDP-Kosovo. N.p., n.d. Retrieved from* <

PROVISIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF SELF-GOVERNMENT Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning “Waste management is Kosovo” Retrieved October, 25 2012 from

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Most landfills built before the 1999 conflict were built and managed well below accepted standards.About, 35% of the population lives in urban areas and are services by municipal waste companies. Donors such as the EAR (European Agency for Reconstruction), have supported and financed programs for rehabilitation and closure of old municipal landfills (or dumpsites) and the reconstruction of new ones.  The new landfills are constructed in accordance with European Union standards, (geological, hydrological, topographical studies were undertaken), and there still remain problems associated with the lack of maintenance and especially on treating the leachate from the landfills.The general urban waste in kg per person in daily/monthly report in Kosovo, for year 2002 (based on data from waste companies enterprises).



Rexhepi, F., Rugova, A., Arbneshi, T. (2010). **Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Ibër River* **{}Sediment{}**. Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia: BALWOIS. Retrieved in September 16, 2011, from* _ _
This research paper written by Fatos Rexhepi, Ardian Rugova, and Tahir Arbneshi in English was intended to determine the quantity of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in the sediment of the Ibër River as well as identification of the potential pollutants of this water. The authors conducted this study by the side of Department of Technology and the Department of Chemistry in University of Prishtina in 25, 29 May 2010.
This article written by Rexhepi, Rugova, and Arbneshi, contains a research over the heavy metal pollution in the aqua system, specifically in the Iber River. This river is a subject to this kind of pollution being very close to the major mines of lead and zinc in Zvecan and Mitrovica. The result from the research, which included an experiment of the water composition, showed that Iber contains copper, zinc, cadmium and increasing quotes of lead. This research gives data in one of the major environment related issue - that is water pollution. Thus it can be very useful in backing up the arguments over the water pollution in Kosovo.

Reintjes, R., Dedushaj, I., Gjini, A., & Rikke, T. (2002). Tularemia outbreak investigation in Kosovo: Case Control and Environmental Studies. **CDC*, **8(1), 5. Retrieved from*
This is a report from CDC (Center for disease control and prevention) about a disease called Tularemia which was going in certain parts of Kosovo after war and it was said that was caused from the water contamination.

Rebuilding the Energy Sector in Kosovo. European Union. (2007). Prishtine: European Agency for Reconstruction.Retrieved from**  

This is a research paper, finance by the European Union and written by the European Agency for Reconstruction, regarding the new energy sectors that re going to be build in Kosovo. It gives information about the amount of money that has been invested up till now in Kosovo#s energy sector in order to maintain it, and it tells about the efficiency a new power plant would have.

Revkin, A. C., & Wald, M. L. (2007, July 16). The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. Retrieved September 18, 2011, from
This article contains important information and research techniques about the functioning of the solar energy and investment around the world in this sphere. Both authors gave good example, where solar energy is getting its important role in the environments and in technical usage and decreasing costs. Article shows a interviewed made for 1000 citizens of America where they have been asked : what energy source they thought would be used most for generating electricity in 15 years. The top choice was not nuclear plants, or coal or natural gas, The winner was the sun. Article talks also about the environmental impact of producing the energy through nuclear plats, and also the damages its creates in environment such as global warming . This kind of energy would possibly work as well in Kosovo, based on the Balkan weather and good nature conditions .

REC field office in Kosovo. (2000). Strategic Environmental Analysis Of Kosovo. Retrieved from
The article "Strategic Environmental Analysis of Kosovo" outlines two major environmental problems such as the waste management and water problems. In addition, the article provides several of recommendations that do help on developing a strategic plan in order to solve the current ongoing issues.

Report,The state of water in Kosovo. (n.d.). Kosovo Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved September 19, 2011, (http://
This is an annual report about the state of water in Kosovo, published by Kosovo Environmental Agency. This report shows the institutional legal frame work, the policies about the environment, the strategies on plans for water, the water resources available, the usage of water, the quality of water and the pollution on water.

Rruga e nje ndermarresi drejt suksesit. (2010). Storie Suksesi [The path of an entrepreneur toward success]. Retrieved September 19, 2011, from BSC Kosovo website:
In this article it is explained how a quite expensive, but a really environmental friendly technology started to get applied in Kosovo. In Gjakove, a young entrepreneur achieved to receive a grant from USA, which uses human waste to generate electricity, and artificial diesel. Since it uses human waste as a raw material, it helps on cleaning the environment, and reducing the fuel import up to 80 %.

Rusila, A. (2009, May1). UN death camps, EU money, local negligence. Retreived from
According to the World Health Organization and other UN organizations in Kosovo, more than 600 people were in serious health danger because of the mines in Mitrovica. The fact that after the war in Kosovo, nobody really cared about the environment and that there was lack of leadership to solve environmental issues, and especially this in Mitrovica. Further, the UNHCR has built these camps as a temporary solution, but the people who lived there stayed longer than 45 days.
According to some studies, the overall population in Mitrovica which has elevated levels of heavy metals, especially lead, but the samples from the three RAE IDP Camps had the most alarming lead levels in the blood. More than four years earlier the 2000 UNMIK report had also noted higher levels among RAE internally displaced persons (IDPs). According to WHO, a blood lead level of 10 micrograms per deciliter or below is acceptable. The measurements from

Ruzhdi Pllana., Vahdet Pruthi., Arsim Ejupi., Valbon Bytyqi.(2010). Water Resources Challenges in Kosovo and their Trans-boundary Impacts. Retrieved February 2012 from:
In this article published in May 2010 for a summit in Ohrid, Macedonia are explained the challenges of the water resources in Kosovo in the context of: socio-economic, natural, and trans-boundary impacts. It is also explained how geographical positions and terrain affected the flowing of Kosovo river system in the sea more specifically the Adriatic Sea, Black Sea, and Aegean Sea.


 Salihu, A., (2005, February 25). Kosovo Pollution Fears. **Institute for War & Peace Reporting.* *BCR Issue 513.Retrieved in September 17, 2011, from

This article written by Arben Salihu in English has the intention to tackle the pollution problem caused by Kosova A, one of two power stations of the Kosovo Energetic Corporation, KEK. It intensifies the fact that the villagers of Dardhishte are being seriously damaged (lung cancer and respiratory diseases) from the carelessness of the workers in the power plant that remove the filters for whatever reason. The article was issued on February the 25th in 2005 in Institute for War & Peace Reporting page.
In the article that "Kosovo's Old Power Plants Sources of Cancer, Lung Disease", that is written by Arben Salihu, the author figures out the air pollution that is caused be thermo central energy power located in Obiliq-Kastriot. This continuous damage from air pollution has impacted the movement and impacted the decrease in population of villages near these energy sources. In addition, the author emphasizes that the pollution came from the two main power plants that are on the aforementioned bases.

          The article here is talking about the negative effects of the Kosovo A power plant on its close environment, mostly on the village of Dardhishte, which is located right beside the plant and therefore absorbs most of the negative effects of the plant, such as pollution. Namely, high emissions of particles and poisonous gas coming from the chimney of the plant, as well as other toxic materials which are poured into the rivers and streams of this area have caused many casualties in this region, especially in the village of Dardhishte. In this area, people consider themselves lucky if none of their family members has died as result of pollution, which apparently causes lung cancer. Namely, the emissions of Kosovo A were 74 times higher than the maximum allowed by European standards (Salihu, 2006 , par. 3). Such huge emissions are largely due to the poor quality of the filters installed on the chimneys, which need to be replaced with more efficient ones.

            The magnitude of the pollution seems to be caused by the human factor as well, as the workers, and presumably, the managers, would remove the filter for greater power production (Salihu, 2006 , par. 10). As the news about the filter removal was spread, the management of KEK came out to say that they are not aware that something like that happened, and did not even initiate an investigation to at least prove that nothing has happened. The ministers of the energy sector say that “this situation is tragic, yet we must run the plants in order to provide enough electricity for the people of Kosovo” (Salihu, 2006 , par. 32).

            The idea of development and modernization is to find new and improved ways that people can benefit. Do we see that here? Apparently not. The statements of the ministers that we must choose whether we want a healthier environment or more energy is also tragic. There is always something that can be done to ensure that the tradeoff does not exist, or to at least minimize it. But nothing can be done if people who can make a difference stand idle. A lot more must be done to raise awareness of the subject, because, like you and me and everybody else living in Kosovo, people of Dardhishte village and its surrounding deserve the same living conditions we have. For if we do not do that, then there will be no equity in our society, and the environment and the people will suffer more and more.

            This article is written by Arben Salihu and published by institute for war and peace reporting. This article is about the environmental pollution that comes from the power plant Kosovo A and the villages that are nearest to the power plants. It includes declarations from some people who complain about the dust and air pollution that comes from the power plants, and are accusing it for many people’s death. In this article there is information also about the water being contaminated because of the ash deposits.

Salihu, A., (2005, February 21). Air Pollution Fears_. Lung cancer and respiratory diseases are cutting a swathe through villages next to Kosovo’s ageing electricity stations._ Retrieved September 10, 2012, from

In this article, issues of the chemicals that release air pollution from the concrete chimney of Kosovo A (KEK,) are effecting the health of the civilians in a small village called Dardhishte. Many of the people that live in Dardhishte die of lung cancer or other diseases, caused by the air pollution.  Muhamet Gerguri (a village leader,  says, “you consider yourself lucky if no one in your family has yet died, or is now dying of, cancer.”  This shows the tragedy of the people that live in that small village. The problem is KEK cannot prevent the air pollution from happening. While many people in the village have moved to safer areas, villages, and towns, families who are too poor to move out of the village have to suffer the consequences of an early death.

        This air pollution causes the death of 68% of babies near the cities and villages of KEK. The chemicals also go into the rivers, making the water unsafe not only to animals, but for humans to drink. The ministry of Environment is doing their best to help prevent such deaths. They promised to move families out of the areas where the air pollution is affecting them but not much has actually been done or enforced. Because KEK is in so much debt from the nonpaying users of electricity/energy, KEK is unable to afford filters for the power plants. KEK cannot stop working because we need our energy, but they also cannot prevent the harmful air pollution.

        This article explains just some of the dangers caused by KEK. But the only ones to blames are us. The people who don’t pay their bills caused KEK to be in debt. We are the causes of many deaths in the cities, towns, and villages near KEK. 

Salihu, A. (2005). Frikë për nivelin e lartë të ndotjes në Kosovë. Prishtinë: Ballkans:
Regional Reporting and Sutanable Training BCR issue 513. <ë-për-nivelin-e-lartë-të-ndotjes-në-kosovë>
This article is written in Albanian language from Arben Salihu, and there are some interviews with people who are at front line at the area where air pollution is in the highest level. There are provided some evidences in how people are getting sick from very hard diseases just by staying near to this place. Many problems are caused from the employees of the KEK (Kosovo's energetic corporation), and nobody is intervening to solve this issue. Government it self, is less concentrated in this problem because other issues as economic and social wealth fare are more prior than this. Everyone is responsible for this because we as citizen have to be more active in controlling the pollution that is destroying, and causing many deaths in our country and not waiting everything to be done from our government.

Salihu, Arben. (2004). "Kosovo's Old Power Plants Sources of Cancer, Lung Disease." Environment News Service. Retrieved September 20, 2011, from<>.
In the article that "Kosovo's Old Power Plants Sources of Cancer, Lung Disease", that is written by Arben Salihu, the author figures out the air pollution that is caused be thermo central energy power located in Obiliq-Kastriot. This continuous damage from air pollution has impacted the movement and impacted the decrease in population of villages near these energy sources. In addition, the author emphasizes that the pollution came from the two main power plants that are on the aforementioned bases.

Salihu, A. (2004, September 1). Kosovo's Old Power Plants Sources of Cancer, Lung Disease. ens-newswire. Retrieved September 19, 2011,
This is an article written in English by Arben Salihu for the Environment New Services. This article emphasizes the risk of cancer that the Kosovo people have because of the power plants. Throughout this article one can also found many ideas and concerns from different people and officials.

Salihu, A. (2004, September 1). Kosovo Daily: Obiliq.Kosovo Daily. Retrieved September 19, 2011, from
Environment is an important and life risking issue in Kosovo. There are a lot of elements causing the bad image Kosovo has gained but this article focuses in one of the major environment pollutants which is power plant. According to Arben Salihu, the writer of article, power plants in Kosovo have caused a number of deaths especially in village named Dardhishte. The oxidation process results to the generation of emission to air. Also the ash released can easily be transported through open conveyer belt therefore people living close to Obiliq area, suffer from cancer, lung and other respiratory diseases. Beside Obiliq, Prishtina is also threatened by the dust clouds and smoke carried by the wind from power plants. Mr. Salihu also points that workers in late shifts in KEK also contribute in polluting the air because they remove the filters so they do not have to stand by the machines and this causes to poor maintenance of power. Nobody can ask KEK to stop its work because then there will be no energy provided, but on the other hand people will continue to get sick and there will be always polluted air around. Moreover, everybody knows the danger coming through toxic substances released but nobody can do anything because there is not enough money in Kosovo's budget to take care of it.

School of Business, Economics and Law, U. O. G., &, (2008). Kosovo environment and climate analysis. In Retrieved from

This article analyses Kosovo’s environment and climate changes. This climate change issue leads to a discussion on how it can be integrated into the Swedish cooperation with Kosovo. Swedish government set up three main thematic priorities (energy, environment and security, and water) in order to contribute and develop the cooperation with Kosovo which was still sensitive to political instability and regional conflicts. Moreover they provided funds to Kosovo to develop an environmental strategy and an environmental action plan.

Furthermore, in this article some questions where discussed in order to solve this issue like: key environmental problems and their causes, their effects, what are key actors doing to manage it, how and to what extent are the responses and opportunities implemented and followed-up, and what are the implications for Swedish Development Cooperation. However, these environmental issues are linked to economic development, but still affecting the living opportunities, economics overall, and public health. So this article suggests to consider these: Capacity development of environmental institutions, Sustainable integrated natural resource management for employment and economic growth, Environmental management for enhanced public health, Adaptation to climate variability and change, Environmental education and awareness, Participating in regional and international forums and networks in order to solve the issue.

Selani, A. K., (2009, October 16). Normat e larta të ndotjes. Evropa e lirë - Radio Evropa e Lirë© 2011. Retrieved September 19, 2011, from

An online article written in Albanian by Ariana Kasapolli Selani and published in the website of the radio "Evropa e Lirë". Entitled "High rates of pollution" and published in October, 2009, the article discusses about the problems of high rates of pollution which every year overcome the allowed rate. Contributing to the pollution is also KEK and Ferronikeli, who according to this article do not monitor the air pollutants efficiently. However, the article emphasizes that the situation is improving, also with the new law of not allowing cars older than eight years to enter in Kosovo.

Shala, F., Dragusha, B., & Sadiku, M. (n.d.). Air pollution in the area around the mining complex Trepça in kosovo. 310-314. Retrieved in September 16, 2011 from
In this article, Shala, Dragusha, and Sadiku, present the results of a research conducted in the area near the Mining Complex Trepca in Kosovo, with the purpose of finding the level of environmental damage caused by the mine emissions. Their conclusion showed that the area around Trepca is negatively affected by the mining sector, specifically its toxic/acidic pollution, which comes as a consequence of unsafe working procedure and poor waste management. To evaluate their results, the authors use the limit values set by World Health Organization (WHO). Based on these data, they reach a conclusion that this area represents a major threat for the health of local inhabitants. Due to the lack of data and information regarding the level of pollution in this area, the article itself is very important source in building an argument how Trepca is one of the major pollutants in Kosovo.

Shala, F., Sadiku, M., Rexha, B., Dragusha, B., & Shala, S. (2011, July). Industrial landfill source of air pollution in mitrovica. Proceedings of the 5th wseas internationalconference on waste management, Romania. Retrieved from

The town of Mitrovica is one of the cities with the highest air pollution, in particular with heavy metals. Source of air pollution are industrial dumps generated  during metallurgical mining activities, chemical, and finalization of raw materials. In this context are explored the features of air pollution case suspended particles, chemical composition and their distribution. Monitoring of air pollutants with particles is conducted in different parts of the city, respectively, in urban and industrial zones. From the values obtained besed on chemical analysis of dust in the air, it follows that the presence of suspended particles containing heavy metals exceed the permitted values. In certain places even double then allowed values, 246,752 µg/m3. While the source of pollution in known, the amount of these pollutants reaches into millions of tons, it is urgend needed to prepare a strategic plan for rehabilitation and elimination of these landfills.

*Shah, A. (2001, July 14). Effects of Bombing on the Environment — Global Issues. **Global Issues: social, political, economic and environmental issues that affect us all — Global Issues. Retrieved September 19, 2011, from* [

This article is about the usage of depleted uranium (DU) by NATO in Kosovo during the bombing period in the war of 1999, which has put to risk the environment and the people in Kosovo as well as the entire Balkan region and other regions of Europe. What results as a major concern in this article, are the effects on the people who live near the bombed chemical factories and polluted rivers. Kosovo stands as the 13th biodiversity resource in the world. Yet, the UN agency that had gone to Kosovo, alleged that NATO air strikes have had a disastrous impact to Kosovo's environment by influencing the agriculture, industries, employment, essential services, land, air, rivers, lakes and underground waters as well as the food chain and public health Nevertheless, in 1999, environmentalists had warned that KFOR troops and civilians may be prone to the effects of using depleted Uranium such as the Gulf War Syndrome, or other diseases. Also the United Nations Human Rights Tribunal had made a call upon states in 1996, to restrain the production of mass destruction weapons containing depleted uranium. As mentioned in the article, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) depleted uranium contains both chemical and radiological toxicity which mostly affect kidneys and the lungs. At higher dosage DU effects may also lead to the risk of lung cancer and kidney damage. Although the issue was put to discussion, the author points out that the issues concerning the bombing and its effects still remain unquestioned by the mainstream.
This article focuses on the bombings in Kosovo. In addition, this article goes more in depth as to how the bombings affect more of out daily lives than we think. The bombing, and the illegal uranium which was used were referred to as a devastating impact. In addition, it was interesting to learn about how the bombings affected agriculture, land, and food chains and in addition, public health.

Shala, F., Dragusha, B., & Sadiku, M. (n.d.). Recent Advences in Energy and Development. The World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society. Retrieved September 18, 2011, from

  • "Air pollution in the area around the Mining Complex Trepça in Kosovo"*

In this paper written by F.Shala, B. Dragusha, and M. Sadiku, is presented the situation in the city of Mitrovica, the polluted air that it gets from the Mining Complex Trepca.
The city of Mitrovica is the most polluted one in Europe. In this area, as explained also in the paper, also the four rivers that are around the city and pass through it have a very polluted water. Furthermore, except from the Mining Complex Trepca, the air in Kosovo is also polluted from the Kosovo Electric Corporation, which is situated very close to the city of Mitrovica. Both of these pollutants do not have highly technologically developed machinery due to low investments in Kosovo. And some experiments being done in the city of Mitrovica are presented in the paper, as well as the results

Shah, A. (2001, July 14). Effects of Bombing on the Environment — Global Retrieved September 19, 2011, from the-environment
This article talks about depleted uranium as another source of causing damage to environment. Mr. Shah explains how depleted uranium reached Kosovo during the war through NATO's air strikes,weapons, bombing oil refineries and other factories that ended up spreading toxic clouds of dangerous chemicals into the air. It had impact in various sectors such as agriculture, industry, employment, essential services, land, air, rivers, lakes and underground waters as well as in food chain and public

Shala, Bexhet. "VLERËSIMI I NDIKIMIT NË MJEDIS." Http:// June 2009. 03 Oct. 2012


This is a report published in 2009 and it identifies the effects of the environment and the measures that should be taken in order to eliminate or reduce throughout the phase of construction of an animal's laboratory. This report also refers to the laws and existing norms in Kosovo's legal infrastructure. The assessment of the effects in environment and environment management plan includes a general evaluation of the project from the initial phase of construction, while handling i a very specific way its components, proposed measure in order to soften the negative effects in the environment. 

Sinani Nezir., & Demi Agron, (2011).Projektet energjetike ne kosove. (p. 25). Prishtine: Instituti Kosovar për Kërkime dhe Zhvillime të Politikave; Forumi për Iniciativa Qytetare; Instituti GAP. Retrieved from

The study analyzes the perspectives and roles of the main stakeholders in the energy sector in Kosovo focusing on the current energy projects and policies. The analysis focuses on Kosovo's energy strategy, the energy market model and privatization. This study is important to environmental policy class, for it provides arguments against the new power plant, which if build would further degrade the environment.

Sihna, Kumar Manoj.(2001) "Protection of the Environment During Armed Conflicts- A Case Study of Kosova"


This article discusses the impact of NATO bombing in Balkan Peninsula especially in Kosova. It also elaborates the impact in river Danub. The main point of this article is to elaborate what kind of damage it caused to the environment and indirect impact to the people. The article describes which of the places are affected most like Kragujevac or Novi Sad which called HOT SPOTS. IT also issues the affect of the depleted uranium in the environment and what it has been don to correct the damage   

Stafilov, T., Aliu, M., Sajn, R. (2010). Arsenic in Surface Soils Affected by Mining and Metallurgical Processing in K. Mitrovica Region, Kosovo. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 11: 4050-4061.Retrieved from

The results of a study on the spatial distribution of arsenic in topsoil (0-5 cm) over the K. Mitrovica region, Kosovo, are reported. The investigated region (300 km2) was covered by a sampling grid of 1.4 km × 1.4 km. In total, 159 soil samples were collected from 149 locations. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied for the determination of arsenic levels. It was found that the average content of arsenic in the topsoil for the entire study area was 30 mg/kg (from 2.1 to 3,900 mg/kg) which exceeds the estimated European arsenic average in topsoil by a factor of 4.3. Contents of arsenic in the topsoil exceeded the optimum value recommended by the new Dutchlist (29 mg/kg As) in 124 km2. The action value (55 mg/kg As) was exceeded in 64 km2, with the average content of 105 mg/kg (from 55 to 3,900 mg/kg As).

Statistical Office of Kosovo “ Municipal Waste Survey 2010 ” Retrieved on November 11, 2012 from  ‘ usg=AFQjCNGOY1SfsA3xOZxoR6jmn_9eO7K4QQ

Statistical Agency of Kosovo, namely the Department of Agriculture and Environmental statistics, for the fourth time carried on with the Municipal Waste Survey.The purpose of this survey is to provide stable statistical data for municipal waste sector in Kosovo. The results presented in this publication provide a statistically significant source for the current state of this sector. All statistical instruments used to implement the survey are in line with the EU regulations and recommendations, including Kosovo Waste Law (No. 02/L-30).

Suganya, S., (2011). Long term effects of water pollution on environment. National Research Council, Retrieved from

The article is about the effects of water pollution on environment. As we all know, the quality of water is one of the most important determining factors of welfare of creatures in the world. Water with different kinds of contaminations is the major cause of diseases which affect people`s lives. That`s why this article is written to know the importance of good quality water and the effects that the contaminated water brings.

Syla, A., Veliu, A., & Berisha, K. (2008, May 27). Air pollution with particulate matter and heavy metals of Kosovo thermal power plant. Retrieved in September 16, 2011, from

The overview on Kosova's air pollution condition provided by the authors indicates that area around the Power Plants, mainly Obiliq, is one of the largest sites of air pollution in the country. The article provides a background overview on electricity production, then it continues with the generation power from the two main power plants, and it also describes the various environmental impacts of mining operations. As such the article is helpful in identifying the concrete emissions released from the power plants which represent parameters that will define effective solution to improve air quality in Kosova.
This article elaborates the case of one of the greatest polluters in Kosovo – the thermal Power Plant in Obiliq. Kosovo being very rich with coal started to use this resource to generate the energy and as such, Kosovo A and B thermo plants represent the major sources of energy in the country. Nevertheless, operating in poor conditions, both power plants emit major dangerous elements in the air, polluting at the same time air, water and soil. These and other problems, such as management of ash, coming as a consequence of a bad operation of thermo plants are touched by this article. Discussing the case of KEK, this article could be very well utilized in any research over air, water, and soil pollution in Kosovo and how these impact the lives of citizens.
This research article talks about the problems that thermal power plants located in Obiliq are causing to the air that we breathe. There are two thermal plants located only 5km away from the capital city, Pirshtina, and they burn coal to generate electricity. Taking into consideration that they are quite old and still use old technology to get the power plants going, they make a lot of external damage. The combustion process produces emissions that are spread to the air and those emissions include greenhouse gases such as CO2, SO2, NO, and particulate matter or (PM). Furthermore, the ash that is produced from these thermal power plants is transported by open-belt convoys that enable the ash to spread easily while being transported, thus causing air pollution and extensive health risks for the population. The authors also support the article with their facts, graphs and stats that show us just how polluted our air is (PM concentration in the air is drastically higher than other European countries). They don't offer any solution for the problem, but their findings will surely help us in the near future to more carefully choosing transport distribution, and trying to filter sources of pollution.

The article is mainly considering the air pollution in Kosovo from the time Thermal Power Plan has started to work in Obiliq. The city of Obiliq is considered as the largest air pollution. The concern is mainly on combustion process that leads to generations of emissions to air, water and soil. In this article are given the details of power generation in Kosovo, Power Plant Kosovo A, Power Plant Kosovo B. Coal reserves and their quality are also explained. Therefore all those energy sources in Kosovo are tending to pollute the air, and in this article.

*School of Business, Economics and Law, UNIVERSITY OF GOTHENBURG. (2008). **Kosovo environment and climate analysis. 17. Retrieved in September 18, 2011, from*
The article argues the importance and impact of climate and environment in the territory of Kosovo. The Swedish government issues the environmental situation of Kosovo in order to integrate a cooperation strategy within the region. Regarding the development cooperation, the Swedish have concentrated their focus on: Energy; Water; Environment and Security; Adaptation to Climate Changes. Furthermore, the central aim to set stability and peace within the territory of Kosovo opens the path towards the European integration, through the presence of good governance, democracy, and economic development. Nevertheless, environmental concerns indirectly affect the public health, and so, they should be addressed seriously in order to avoid the degradation of natural resources, pollution, and to provide a healthy life in the society of Kosovo. Ultimately, for the above mentioned environmental reasons the Swedish have offered financial aids for environmental development and strategy in Kosovo, and by doing so, they are identified as a major source of solving these types of problems in Kosovo.

Swiss Development Cooperation Office. UNDP, Energy Development. (2007). *{{color:#333333}}Energy for development - human development report 2007{}. Retrieved from *
This is an Report written by the Swiss Development Cooperation Office, researched in Kosovo, to determine the Development of the Energy Sector, in connection with Human Development, Energy Supply Changes and Challenges, and it talks about Energy Consumption: Trends, Perceptions and Attitudes. The report is written in English, and the information it gives is very useful, based on the quality and the graphs.


Tahirsylaj, S., & Latifi, L.(2010). Quality of air in urban and suburban area's of the Prishtina's and meteorological impact conditions in distribution of pollution. Retrieved from;
This article analyzes Prishtina's air quality as it is the most populated city in Kosovo and it is very close to thermo power plants Kosovo A and B. The air around Prishtina is considered to contain PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, and CO. The thermo power plants release high amounts of air pollutants that endanger the health of the population around.
The article focuses on air pollution with PM10, PM2.5, and TSP (total suspended particles) for the urban and suburban areas of Prishtina. The air pollutants were continuously measured with various sophisticated instruments and conclusions were made. The article is very educational and helpful since it concludes by noting that Prishtina's biggest problem in air quality is the high concentration of dust particles suspended in air.

THE STATE OF WASTE IN KOSOVO 2003 - 2004. (n.d.). Docstoc – Documents, Templates, Forms, Ebooks, Papers & Presentations. Retrieved October 24, 2012, from

This website provides a report for the state of wastes in Kosovo through the years 2003-2004. It also has sufficient tables and charts that provide evidence for the situation of wastes in the country. Moreover, this report is a guideline for waste management, since it provides policies and solutions on dealing with this environmental problem.


Ujërat e zeza e lënë Kosovën shumë larg BE-së. (2011). KohaNet, (Sewage System in Kosovo). Retrieved from This article talks about the sewage system in Kosovo. The sewage treatment is important especially because among the conditions and criteria to be met for entry into the wide family of European Union (EU) is emphasized with capital letters and wastewater treatment plants with.

United Nations Development Programme, UNDP. (n.d.). **Environment_ _. Retrieved September 19, 2011, from UNDP website:*,124&nbsp;
This web page discusses the major climate changes that have been going on in Kosovo and its environment due to a vast amount of pollution being emitted from old energy power plants. They lightly mention how the Kosovo legislation that is covering the issue of the environment is having a hard time actually implementing and enforcing it and that environmental awareness in general is very low among the public of Kosovo

"UNDP Kosovo - Environment and Climate Change." UNDP Kosovo - Home. Retrieved 19 Sept. 2011. <[,124]>
This link is UNDP's published material on Environment in Kosovo. It has information about climate change and it also has the list of completed and ongoing environmental projects in Kosovo.

UNDP, (2010). Projekti për ndihmë përgatitore për zhvillimin e qëndrueshëm në Dragash. Retrieved from>.

This is an document that tells about a project dealing with the sustainable development plans/policies that would promote employment and environmental protection in Dragash, Kosovo . This is a report which was put together by BIRN, and which refers to the environmental issues in Kosovo. It mainly is focused on Kosovo's position on the climate change, and discusses how this is not one of the main priorities of Kosovo's government and people. They discuss many fields where the environment is being significantly hurt, including the field of forests-deforestation, providing potential solutions as to how to prevent it from happening

UNEP. (2004)"Kosovo Conflict Hot Spots Cleaned up." Unep. Retrived Web. 12 Oct. 2012. <>.

This is not an official record, and it talks about two of the health-threatening environmental hot-spots between Serbia and Kosovo. The hot-spot of Serbia has been significantly reduced and as a result fresh water has been improved for thousands of people, as well as hazardous waste has been removed for treatment due to the strengths of environmental management.

Moreover, United Nations Environment Programme- UNEP arranged a clean-up programme which successfully examined and improved environmental security due to a situation of armed conflict between Kosovo and Serbia.

UNMIK. (2003, April 26). Kosovo State of the Environment Report. Retrieved from:

This is a useful article about the state of the environment in general. It highlights the most important environmental issues in Kosovo and their causes. It includes air pollution problems, water pollution, waste management, etc.


United Nations Development Programme, Kosovo. Environment and Climate Change. Retrieved
This article describes one of the hottest topics around the world when it comes to the environment: climate change and global warming. The article implies that Kosova, like every other country in the world, is facing consequences from climate change. However, not much is being done about this issue. The article describes environmental degradation as one of the most apparent phenomena that climate change has brought upon Kosova. Also, the article mentions how low public awareness is about this crucial topic and thus is an obstacle for effective implementation of environmental projects. Since Kosova is aiming towards the European Union, it has to recognize the importance of this issue and start to tackle it with environmental projects. The United Nations Development Programme in Kosova has already started with several environmental projects in order to spread public awareness and to provide incentives to the government and local organizations to do the same.

UNDP Kosovo, Editorial Team (2011, March 24). Environment Newsletter. Retrieved from
This article deals with the use of renewable resources in energy production and the importance of it in Kosovo's environment. Towards the end of the article, you can also read about some more information on other various environmental protection initiatives in Kosovo but the main aim is the use of renewable resources in energy production.

UNDP Kosovo 2010. Environment and Climate change.,124
This article mostly pointed out the environmental problems discussed worldwide; experts are proposing various alternatives for environmental awareness by using numerous approaches trying to protect environment. The problem has been concerning Kosovo in addition. For example, according to the UNDP article, environmental problems have not been priorities for government agenda. It also specifies that since the transition from socialist system to market economy, environmental problems have regularly been neglected.
So, the journal indicates that the environmental problem is a very important subject need to be addressed immediately. Because, it is directly linked with health problems and sustainable growth, Kosovo institutions have already prepared appropriate legislation facilitating these issues; however, Kosovo lacks human and institutional capacity regarding the implementation and enforcement, says the article.
*UNDP Kosovo (n.d.). **Environment and Climate Change. Retrieved September 20, 2011, from UNDP Kosovo website:*,124
The article Environment and Climate Change is talking about the environment issues in Kosovo today. And according the article it is an extremely important issue that needs to be addressed ASAP. There is a great lack of human and institutional capacity regarding their implementation and enforcement towards this issue. The climate is changing, and according to the article human activities is responsible for this.
"It is a scientifically proven fact that was recognised by the Nobel Peace Prize in 2008."
The article Environment and Climate Change is talking about the environment issues in Kosovo today. And according the article it is an extremely important issue that needs to be addressed ASAP. There is a great lack of human and institutional capacity regarding their implementation and enforcement towards this issue. The climate is changing, and according to the article human activities is responsible for this.
"It is a scientifically proven fact that was recognised by the Nobel Peace Prize in 2008."

United Nations Environment Programme. (2001). Depleted Uranium in Kosovo- Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment, 27-39. Retrieved September 18, 2011, from
I have chosen the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) report on depleted uranium in Kosovo because I have always been interested to know the DU concentrations after the war in Kosovo, and especially after the NATO bombings. The report is quite long, 188 pages, but I have only concentrated on the findings and recommendations section (page 27-39).
The report offers scientific data from eleven sites where DU had been used during the war. There were five laboratories build to test the soil, water, milk and other samples collected from these eleven sites. UNEP uses graphical tools such as tables to illustrate total uranium concentration in various samples from Kosovo, and then offers recommendations for further action.

UNDP. (2011). Conservation of Biodiversity and Sustainable Land Use Management in
Dragash / Dragaš. Retrieved from,100,1005
The article is basically recognizing the natural resources that exist in Sharr Mountains. Those resources are intended to be unique ones, and protection policies are needed. Sustainable land Use Management was meant to be an appropriate project to the inhabitants of Dragash whose living area is being damaged. The Sharr Mountains possesses a high biodiversity and large fauna. The project is intended to extend the Sharr National Park area, to introduce changes on how this area could be used regarding waste production, and the usage of natural resources such as water, forest and flora. Increasing awareness to protect natural resources, by issuing protection policies is the aim of this project.

UNDP (Ed.). (2007). Energy for Development: Human Development Report 2007
     Retrieved from

This is a long report about energy in Kosovo. I also found some parts on the transport sector which can be useful for pollution from cars. 

The report on "Environmental Threats and Opportunities Assessment (ETOA)" illustrates the present environmental conditions is Kosovo and focuses more in both the water and energy sectors. In addition, the report shows that the awareness for the environmental issues are very low compared to the environmental degradation which is very high.

The report on "Environmental Threats and Opportunities Assessment" demonstrates how much the environment in Kosovo is influenced form the urbanization, economic development and industrialization. In addition, it attempts to raise the awareness for the environment pollution and the programs that should be considered to slower the environmental degradation.
This report presents an update of a biodiversity assessment completed in 2003, plus it provides a State of the Environment report that emphasizes the water and energy sectors, two areas where USAID/Kosovo is currently engaged in several activities.biodiversity assessment completed in 2003, plus it provides a State of the Environment report that emphasizes the water and energy sectors, two areas where USAID/Kosovo is currently engaged in several activities.

United Nations Development Programme, UNDP. (n.d.). Environment . Retrieved September 19, 2011,from UNDP website:,124&nbsp;
This article describes best the environmental situation in Kosovo. As stated in the article the biggest problem is that people are suffering the transitions side effects. People are not conscious about how the environment is important to them and to their lives. But if supported continuously with conferences, and regional environmental stuff, Kosovo will have a bright future in environmental protection. Also the EU has placed environmental conditions o fulfill, even though Kosovo has passed all the environmental laws in parliament. Let's hope our population will be soon self-conscious because it is the most effective way in protecting the environment.

USAID/ Kosovo (2007, January 31). Evaluation of Forest Management In Kosovo's Publicly Owned Forests. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from
This is a report which provides an evaluation of forest management in Kosovo's publicly owned forests. This is done from the perspective of the international forest management standard. The report also reflect the situation in Kosovo in January 2007, and some of the issues involved in here are: eliminating illegal activities in forestry and securing funding for the development of forest management plans for the areas foreseen for certification. There are also some recommendations presented that should be implemented in order to improve forest management and achieve certification of the proposed forest areas.


Van den Berg, K., Woerden, F., & Naber, H. (n.d.). Vlerësimi i kostos së degradimit mjedisor, rishikimi institucional dhe rishikimi i shpenzimeve publike për mjedisin. Analiza mjedisore e shtetit*. Retrieved October 9, 2012, from*


This report analyzes the overall situation of environment in Kosovo. It was done by the World Bank. It starts by describing the situation and also giving the background to Kosovo's environmental situation. Furthermore, it also discusses the main pollutants and analyzes the pollution it emits. The report is divided into sections where each section is an analysis of the pollutants, the pollution they emit, the consequences and what can be done in order to change the situation. It also includes many useful charts, figures and tables which depict the situation and make it easier for us to visualize it.

Veselaj, T., Berisha, A., Hyseni, M., Balaj, I., & Kafexholli, B. (n.d.). The State of Waste in Kosovo 2008 Report. AMMK-RKS*. Retrieved October 9, 2012,from*

This is a report written in 2009 about the situation of wastes in Kosovo. It was done by the Kosovo Environmental Protection Agency. It starts by introducing the definition and the main facts about wastes, the background and the classification of wastes. It continues by describing the state of waste pollution in our country. It describes the pollution from each kind of waste and how the land is polluted. The report also describes waste management.


World Bank Team. Country Environmental Analysis: Cost Assesment of Environmental Degradation, Institutional Review, and Public Environmental Expenditure Revies . Kosovo: 2011.;

Print.This report is written about about environment issue and its degradation in Kosovo. It is divided in six different sections that tell about each section’s condition, what is their economic and health cost and in the end there are recommendations applied to each section.First section is about air pollution and lead contamination.  Health impacts of air pollution, tables that contain data on air pollution and the cost of it. It also tells about amount of lead in air of Kosovo and its effect on human’s health. Moreover, report has a special section on water quality and water pollution. Environmental impacts from agricultural water pollution, health impacts from contamination of water sources, the effect on children under age five and effect on people above age five. Then at each section of the article it also report what is the cost that people bear because of the pollutants and in the end of water section there are policy recommendation applicable to water section. Furthermore, the article also talks about solid waste, municipal solid waste and other waste in landfills, impact of waste dumping on property values, and policy recommendation applicable to waste section. There is another section talks about forest and land resources, their environmental and economic importance. This report it actually calculates the economic losses of forest degradation and has the specific recommendation for managing forest and land resources. The last section of article is mining, manufacturing and energy in Kosovo it deals with environmental management tools.

World Bank Group (2011). Kosovo Cleans Up Environmental.Legacy. Retrieved from 
*,,menuPK:4812133~pagePK:64885066~piPK:4812134~theSitePK:5929282,00.html *
The article released by World Bank indicates that a grant of 5.5 million dollars has been approved by World Bank's Board of Directors in dealing with environmental problems. The grant was given to support Kosovo Energy Corporation (KEK) and Kosovo authorities in their attempts to remove ash heaps and to alleviate long-term power development while same time promoting environmental protection. The journal specifies that the project will address environment issues, enabling KEK to loosen the environment already over loaded with mining materials; and building capacities within KEK for maintaining clean environment. In addition, it tells that Kosovo has poor history regarding environmental practices.

The World Bank. Integrating Environment into Agriculture and Forestry Progress and Prospects in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Retrieved February 24 2011 from:
This report prepared by The World Bank and published on November 2007 tackles agricultural problems in Kosovo most specifically: the fragmentation of farmland, industrial pollution, and soil erosion. It is stated that because Kosovo's agricultural area accounts for 53% of the country it should be protected and worked with it because the total contribution of agriculture in Kosovo's GDP is 20% compared to how much agricultural space it has.

World Bank Group (2011). Cleaning up Kosovo’s dangerous ‘black spot’. World Bank, 1-2. Retrieved from,,contentMDK:22473180~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:297770,00.html

This article explains the need for technology in the energy sector. Even though Kosovo has had a lot of support from European Commission and World Bank regarding renovation of Power Plants, Substations, Lines and Headlines, we still have lack of energy. The new technology is required in building a new Power Plant, because of the pollution. Since Kosovo lacks budget, the World Bank has offered 10.5 million dollars, and the Dutch Government has offered 3 million Euros.  

Water and Waste Regugulatory Office (WWRO) (July,2011). Annual Performance Report for the Water and Waste Companies in Kosovo. Received from

This report was published in July 2011 – Water and Waste Regulatory Office under the name “ Annual Performance Report for the Water and Waste Water Companies in Kosovo”. The report talks about water supply and waste water and the direct and indirect impact of the effects in customers. Further, the report aims to regulate the waste water in Kosovo and make it qualitative and reliable for consumption. The key issue is to provide population in Kosovo with drinking water, monitoring the wastewater collection as well as ensuring proper water supply for the local population. The report highlights also the importance of meeting the quality environmental standards.



YaÄŸcilar, M. (n.d.). International Conference, Highlights and Results . Kosovo Enviromental Protection Agency. Retrieved September 19, 2011, from
This is a report in English published by Kosovo Environmental Protection Agency. This report contains the summary of the conference about the energy efficiency and environmental protection held on 20-21 October 2010. The summary briefly explains the opportunities, practices and actions taken on this issue.


Zeneli, L., Daci, N., Pacarizi, H., & Ajvazi, M. (2011). Impact of environmental pollution on human health of the population which lives nearby kosovo thermopower plants. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Prishtina , Prishtina, Kosova. Retrieved from
This study deals with the environmental pollution as a result of outflow from the coal processing industry. It concentrates on all the different elements that emerge when burning coal in the Power Plants and that might have a fatal impact on the environment. The study also talks about the ash that emissions from the 2 Power Plants and the direct effect on human health of the population living in the industrial area of Obiliç, who have to inhale that ash everyday.
*Zeri. (2011). **Drenasi behet per spital. Prishtine: Zeri Retrieved from*
This is a newspaper article providing some interesting statistics about the air pollution problem in town of Gllogovc (Drenas) caused by the Ferronickel factory.

Stafilov, T. (2010). Arsenic in surface soils affected by mining and metallurgical processing in k. mitrovica region, kosovo. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Retrieved from;&nbsp;

Arsenic in surface soils affected by mining and metallurgical processing in k. mitrovica region, kosovo. 

In this study made by the Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, the department of chemistry, 159 samples were taken from the region around Mitrovica and were tested for the level of arsenic in them. The studies have shown that there is more arsenic in the ground than allowed by the European standards. Exposures to arsenic have a negative effect on human health, especially on the respiratory system and heart. The mining conducted for around a century has caused the level of arsenic in the soil around Mitrovica to rise, and to start having adverse effects on human health. The study was conducted to identify the sources of arsenic, measure the level of it, and identify how large the contaminated area is.

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    This paper was written by Frese, Klitgaard, and Pedersen – Institut for Milje, Teknologi og Samfund under the name “Envrionmental Management in Kosovo”. The research paper is about the huge impact that Trepca mining causes to the environment  It discusses the water waste caused by the heavy metal pollution and that the levels of the waste exceeds the standards of WHO. The research papaer argues also that prioritizing the  environmental issues/problems would have a pozitive effect on both the environmental and economic aspects. Further, according to the paper the emission form the heavy metal presents a critical health risk for the citizens and some immidiate actions must be taken to eliminate this risk. Indeed, one of the main concerns presented in the paper was that some of the local citizens use this water for drinking reasons and the mining complex is a serious econogical issue.

  2. I wrote my name in the list