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Historical Politics of Kosovo
Nineteenth century information about the number of inhabitants in Kosovo will in general be fairly clashing—now and then giving statistical prevalence over Serbs, and now and again to the Albanian people. Also Ottomans inside Kosovo were seen as a problem, as realm checked its inhabitants by religion instead of nationality, utilizing birth archives as opposed to studies of people.
A guide distributed in 1861 by ethnographers form France G. Lejean demonstrates that Albanian people lived on about 57% of Kosovo's property, although a comparative guide, distributed in 1867 by England explorers A. P. Irby and G. M. Mackenzie, demonstrates a lower rate; at last, these maps don't indicate which populace was bigger by and large. By and by, maps neglect to precisely quantify a populace since they forget about populace thickness.
Current Serbian bases estimate that around 400,000 Serbians were forced to flee out of Kosvo somewhere in the range of 1876 and 1912.
In 1876 by the historian Kiepert J. Hahn and the Austrian representative K. Sax published a map that demonstrate that Albanian people lived in the vast majority of what Kosovo really is today, anyway they did not indicate which populace was bigger. As indicated by these sources, the areas of Mitrovica and Fushe Kosova were populated for the most part by Serbs, while a large portion of the western and eastern pieces of the present region were populated Muslims of Albaian.
An Austrian measurements distributed in 1899 assessed:
“182,650 Albanians (47.88%)
166,700 Serbs (43.7%)”
Kosovo Vilayet (1877-1913)
The forerunner of the Vilayet is the Eyalet of Rumeli or Rumelia. The Vilayet structure was created over the Evalet because of its more efficient structure. The Vilayet of Kosovo was a first-level administrative area (vilavet) of the Ottoman Empire on the Balkans where the current country of Kosovo is situated. Also the west of North Macedonia. The Sandžak (Raška) territories (area of Montenegro and Serbia), as they were named under Ottoman rule, were de-facto under Austro-Hungarian control from 1878 to 1909, as specified under Article 25 of the Treaty of Berlin. Uskub (Skopje) functioned as capital of the vilayet. Its location half way to Istanbul and the Empires' European region made it an important city within the Empire. Uskub's populace of 32.000 made it the biggest city in the region. Prizren with just a few thousand inhabitants less came in as a close second.
The Vilayet could be seen as a small representation of Ottoman culture; consolidated inside its limits were different gatherings of people, groups, and religions: Albanians, Serbs, Bosniaks; Muslims and Christians, Orthodox as well as Catholic. The area was known for its skilled workers and significant urban communities; Peja (the present Pec, Albanian: Peja), for example, was one area where particular Ottoman structural design and public bathing houses were raised. Some of these structures have survived and stand to this day.
The origin of the Albanian national character was first pronounced in Prizren, by the "League of Prizren" representatives in 1878.
Population and organization
The Kosovo vilayet contained an assorted populace which was divided along religious and ethnic lines.
Muslim Albanians formed the majority after the migrations caused by the Serbian/Ottoman war in Kosovo vilayet. Blood quarrels were still very common in the Vilayet. About 600 Albanians died from this practice each year. Yakova (Gjakovë) had 8 clans which were mostly Muslim. The Luma region, close to Prizren, had about 5 clans, which were also considered to be mostly Muslim. The town of Peja/Pec was inhabited by crypto-Christians who were Catholic. Like in the Iskodra Vilayet, Kosovar Malisors (highlanders) could escape taxes and conscription in the regular military forces by joining the irregular forces. Ottoman rule was near non-existent in these areas. Ottoman officials would rather join local authorities than the official authorities. To their dismay, the Ottoman authorities had no control over rule and law. Local populations exercised their own law. From a current Albanian perspective, it is believed that during the 1880s, the sanjaks of Peja, Prizren, Pristine, Üsküp and Yenipazar of the Kosovo vilayet were located within the locale of Gegënia.
Muslim Bosniaks whose local language was Slavic shaped a sizable number of Kosovo vilayet's populace and were gathered principally in Yenipazar sanjak that contained noteable Bosniak landowners. Circassians, originally displaced from the Caucasus by the Russians were resettled by the Ottomans to the Kosovo vilayet in 1864, numbering somewhere in the range of 6,000 individuals. The Circassians served as extra troops for the Ottomans when needed.
Orthodox Serbs in the northern part of Kosovo vilayet were the biggest Christian accumilation in the vilayet. They were most dominant dominant in the eastern regions. Orthodox-Serbs were under the clerical authority of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and a metropolitan, regularly of Greek ethnicity, lived in Pristina and effectively governed the Orthodox populace in the area. A theological college in Prizren was reported to have around 100 inhabitants. Montenegrins were most numerous among them. Starting from the 1860s, Serbia actively sought a strategy of supporting Serbs in Kosovo. This involved support in the form of educators, sponsorships for Serb schools and giving grants to students to further studies in Belgrade.
Kosovo Vilayet, 1877-78
In 1877 the Vilayet of Kosovo was formed. It comprised a greater territory than present day Kosovo. At the time the vilayet incorporated the Sanjak of Nis (until 1878), the district around Plav and Gusinje, plus the Dibra region and Sanjak of Novi Pazar. Those areas were previously a part of the Eyalet of Nis, the Eyalet of Üsküb and, post 1865, the Danube Vilayet. The vilayet of Prizren was formed out of the sanjaks of Dobre, Prizren, Skopje and Nis. In 1877 the administrative reforms from Evalet to vilayet excluded these areas.
The Serbian–Ottoman War of 1876–78 caused migrations. Estimations of 30,000 Muslims, or as later investigations demonstrate, 70,000 Muslims (22), of which 49.000 Albanians, were driven out by the Serbian expansion, requested and supported by Russia, from the Sanjak of Nis. Most muslims moved to the Kosovo Vilayet.
Table 1 (source, see reference 22)
Number of men
Number of houses in cities
Number of inhabitants in cities
Language of Muslim population in cities
½ Turkish, ½ Albanian
½ Turkish, ½ Albanian
In 1878, the League of Prizren was founded. The formation was done by Albanians representing four vilayets among others that of Kosovo. The League's idea was to defy Ottoman rule and to form a counterbalance to the emerging Balkan nations.
The Kumanovo Uprising at the beginning of 1878 executed by several heads of the areas (Ottoman kaza) of Kumanovo, Kratovo and Kriva Palanka in the Vilayet of Kosovo (present day Republic of North Macedonia) looked to free the district from the Ottoman Empire and join the Principality of Serbia. The Serbian Army's conquered Niš over the Ottomans on 11th January 1878 and Vranje on 31st January 1878. The Uprising was initiated during the attack on Vranje. Serbia secretly aided the uprising. After four months the Ottomans succeeded in suppressing the Uprising.
The region's borders changed significantly because of the wars and in the Treaty of Berlin ensuing the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. Areas were transferred toMonastir Vilayet and from Salonica Vilayet. In 1879, western pieces of the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, fell under Austro-Hungarian occupation as per the Berlin settlement. It also permitted the Austro-Hungarian control of Bosnia and Herzegovina (staying in that capacity until 1908).
Consolidation and crisis 1879–1913
In 1880 and 1902 two large changes were made to counteract Austro-Hungarian military control over the Sanjak of Novi Pazar. A new administrative area was formed in 1880 from the Sanjak of Pljevlja (Taslica) with kazas: Pljevlja, Prijepolje and Priboj. The kazas of Mitrovica and Novi Pazar were incorporated into to Sanjak of Pristina, and kazas of Berane and Rožaje to Sanjak of Peja went through the same process..
1901 saw the massacres of Serbs executed by Albanians in North Kosovo and Pristina.
1910 was the year where Albanian-organised rebellion broke out in Pristina. The rebellion quickly spread to the entire vilayet of Kosovo. It lasted for three months. In June 1911 the sultan paid a visit to the vilayet at which he conducted peace talks with Albanian dominated areas.
An official census was never done in the Vilayet, therefore only estimates exist.
The 1887 Ottoman local records estimate that ethnic Albanians formed over 50% Kosovo vilayet's population in the sanjaks of Peja, Prizren and Pristine. This was not the case in in the sanjaks of Yenipazar, Taslice and Üsküp. There ethnic Albanians were not a majority.
An Austrian statistics made an estimation which for unknown reasons excluded other ethnicities in the Vilayet:
- 182,650 Albanians (47.88%)
- 166,700 Serbs (43.7%)
In "Ons Volk Ontwaakt "(Our Nation Awakes), a Belgian publication estimated on the 21st of December 1912 that on a total population of 827,100 inhabitants:
- Muslim Albanians - 418,000
- Christian Bulgarians - 250,000
- Orthodox Serbs - 113,000
- Mixed - 22,000
- Muslim Bulgarians - 14,000
- Muslim Turks - 9,000
- Orthodox Vlachs - 900
- Orthodox Greeks - 200
The creation of Yugoslavia and the influence of Josip Broz Tito in Kosovo (1918-1980)
"The Kindom of Sebs" it was called Yugoslavia when created after world war 1. Peter 1 was the first supreme. According to Wikipedia, "Yugoslavia was international recognized on 13 July 1922. It was changed its name to “Kingdom of Yugoslavia” after on 3 October 1929. Axis occupied Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941. In 1943, Partisans pronounced Yugoslavia. In 1944 King Peter II recognized it as the valid regime. The kingdom was successively came to an end in November 1945. In 1946, was retitled the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, when a communist regime was recognized. It attained the zones of Istria, Rijeka, and Zadar. Partisan spearhead Tito governed the country as president up until his death in 1980". Shortly we can find as SFRY. According to BBC, "Tito's forces, however, soon gained the recognition and help of the Allies. They also offered an ideal - a dream of 'brotherhood and unity' - that would link the nations or peoples of Yugoslavia."
FLAG OF YUGOSLAVIA
Elections were held only with one, without any other candidate, and in the end CNF won the elections in 1945. Peter 2 were remove and then FPRY. Tito on these moments was not with all his powers in command.
According to Wikipedia, "The new structure of SFRY in 31 January 1946, showed after the SU, recognized from 6 republics, an autonomous state, and another one that was part of Serbia. That started to make new revolutionary of the governments inside the SFRY. The capital of Yugoslavia was Belgrade. The strategy focused on a strong fundamental administration under the mechanism of Communist Party, and on acknowledgment of the multiple populations. The flags of the other nations used versions of the red flag, with a red star in the middle."
Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Socialist Republic of Croatia
Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Socialist Republic of Montenegro
Socialist Republic of Serbia
Socialist Republic of Slovenia
Tito wanted more and more territory. He was trying to obtain as much as territories he could so in the near future he can attack other countries and use other countries that he commands to help during his attacks. On the middle of these cases, were Albania, Bulgaria and Greece. However by a agreement in Bled, Yugoslavia was not able to start a civil war.
According to Wikipedia, "Yugoslavia determined the national matter of nations and nationalities in a system that all of them had the same privileges. In 1974, the two provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo-Metohija, the republics of Bosnia and Montenegro, were decided with superior independence to the fact that Albanian and Hungarian became nationwide known minority languages, and the Serbo-Croat of Bosnia and Montenegro changed to a procedure based on the tongue of the local people and not on the principles of Zagreb and Belgrade. In Slovenia, the recognized subgroups were Hungarians and Italians. Vojvodina and Kosovo-Metohija made a part of the of Serbia but those provinces also made part of the federation, which ran to the unique condition that Central Serbia did not have its own association but a cooperative association with its provinces symbolized in it.".
According to Britannica : "Meanwhile, growing pressure in Kosovo from the majority ethnic Albanians for greater autonomy escalated into civil war in 1998."
On 7 April 1963, the nation changed its official name to Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Josip Broz Tito was named President for life.[¹]
In the SFRY, every territory that was in Yugoslavia, had their constitution, administration, president.
According to the eHISTORY, "As premier and minister of defense from 1945, Marshal Tito ruled Yugoslavia as a dictator, suppressing internal opposition, executing Mihajlovi and jailing Archbishop Stepinac of Zagreb.
1. President for life is a title assumed by or granted to some leaders to remove their term limit irrevocably as a way of removing future challenges to their authority and legitimacy. The title sometimes confers on the holder the right to nominate or appoint a successor.
Policy in Kosovo Under Slobodan Milosevic (1989-1991)
On 28th of March 1989 Slobodan Miloševic who pushed over a much tougher policy for Kosovo Albanians, decided that the Serbian Constitution was to be modified to give the Serbian Assembly selective rights to be able to decide on the structure of the country, which completely turned over the veto right of Kosovo. Miloševic ICTY indictment that proposed that the amendments should be put before the Kosovo Assembly, most of the assembly members protested and eventually the voted did not reach the two-thirds majority needed.
Although the votes did not reached a two-third majority needed, the Speaker of the Assembly stated that the amendments had passed and they were accepted. The President of the Kosovo Assembly Vukasin Jokanovic disproved of the amendments during court at the time of the trial.He delivered some proof to the court, both video recordings of the votes and stenographic notes of the assembly sessions. This evidenced proved that the majority voted for the constitutional amendments.
A new Serbian Constitution was approved the following year, which radically reduced the powers of the autonomous provinces, keeping many previously autonomous rights to the Belgrade central establishments. They also drastically changed the countries name from the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo to the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, this was due to the fact the western region would use the Serbian name.
ICTY ( International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia logo).
Kosovo Albanians, who set up a secret government to be able to rival the official Serb-dominated regime. They strongly opposed the 1990 constitution. They passed an informal resolution in which they declare Kosovo as a independent Country within Yugoslavia, with a similar status as the rest of the countries in Yugoslavia. On July 5, 1990 the Serbian Parliament officially dismissed the Kosovo Assembly, they proclaimed all its laws unconstitutional and moved its legislative duties to the Belgrade legislature.
The Kosovo assembly declared Kosovo as an independent country, "Republic of Kosovo" they met in secrecy on September 22nd 1991. None of the countries acknowledge their independence except for Albania. On the 18th of October of 1991 the Soviet Union, Europe and the US reassured that Kosovo would not be acknowledged as a independent country and that they would not change the borders in Yugoslavia.
|Year||Roots of War in Kosovo|
|1987||Slobodan Milosevic's power grows after a trip in Kosovo.|
|1989||The Serbian constitution changes due to Milosevic.|
Kosovar Albanians held an unofficial referendum in which they voted for independence.
The ICTY was the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. It was a United Nations court of law that took place during the 90s Balkan wars, they mainly dealt with war crimes.
Kosovo Conflict (1998 - 1999)
According to information on other wikis, on that case according to Wikipedia even though Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) was formed in the early 1990s to fight against the Serbian forces, the first official appearance occurred in Llaushe in 1997, November 28th. In 1997 KLA was acquiring large amount of weaponry from Albania and in early 1998 they attacked the Yugoslav authorities in Kosovo multiple times trying to take control over the Kosovar territory. Unfortunately, these attacks only increased the number of the Serbian paramilitary forces in Kosovo. The Serbian paramilitary forces gave an immediate response killing more than 2000 Kosovar civilians and KLA members. After their response, the situation in Kosovo only got worse with the Yugoslavian authorities trying to oppress the KLA members and the KLA combatants who were trying to free their place and take control over the Kosovar territory. After some time, NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) intervened by bombing Yugoslavia from March 24, 1999 and it lasted until an agreement was reached to withdraw the Yugoslav army troops from the province of Kosovo on June 10, 1999. After the agreement, a UN peacekeeping mission named “United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo” (UNMIK) was established in Kosovo. (Wikipedia, 2019)
The NATO Bombing of Yugoslavia
The map attached below shows all the places that were bombed during the NATO intervention in Kosovo.
The Origins of the Largest Political Parties in the Republic of Kosovo
Origins of the largest political parties in Kosovo
As for the largest political party in Kosovo, it is Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK), which has it origins in the 1990s, that was a non-violent movement which was a resistance against Miloševic's rule. It was led by Ibrahim Rugova, and he led this political party till he died in 2006.
The next two largest parties in Kosovo have their roots from the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA): one is the Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK), which is led by former KLA leader and commander Hashim Thaçi and the other is the Alliance for the Future of Kosovo (AAK) which is led by former KLA commander Ramush Haradinaj.
Also a Kosovo publisher Veton Surroi, who formed his own political party in the year of 2004 which was named "Ora." on the other hand, the Kosovo Serbs formed the Serb List for Kosovo and Metohija (SLKM) in 2004, but they have boycotted the Kosovo's institutions.
What it stands for?
United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo
The command of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) was built up by the Security Council in its objectives 1244 (1999). The Mission is ordered to help and guarantee conditions for a quiet and a usually life for all citizens of Kosovo and advance local dependability in the Western Balkans.
The Mission is well-organized to help and guarantee conditions for a quiet and a commonly life for all citizens of Kosovo and developing local constancy in the Western Balkans. Incorporated by the Security Council at its 4011th meeting, on 10 June 1999 The Security Council, bearing as a primary concern for the reasons and standards of the Charter of the United Nations, and the essential duty of the Security Council for the support of global harmony and security, Reminding its goals 1160 (1998) of 31 March 1998, 1199 (1998) of 23 September 1998, 1203 (1998) of 24 October 1998 and 1239 (1999) of 14 May 1999, regretting that there has not been a full consistence with the necessities of these goals. Determined to the supportive circumstances in Kosovo, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, to accommodate the restricted and free return to the all things considered and dislodged people to their homes, accusing all demonstrations of wildness against the Kosovo populate just as all militant acts by any crowd. Recalling the announcement made by the Secretary-General on 9 April 1999, communicating the worry at the concerned disaster occurring in Kosovo, confirming the integrity of everything being equal and evacuated people to come back to their homes. Reminding the order of the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, welcoming the universal standards on a political answer for the Kosovo emergency received on 6 May 1999 (S/1999/516, attach 1 to this goals) and inviting additionally the acknowledgment by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia of the standards set out in focuses 1 to 9 of the paper displayed in Belgrade 1999 (on 2 June S/1999/649, add 2 to this goals), and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia's agreement to that paper, reaffirming the dedication of all member States to the influence and regional respectability of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and different States of the area, as set out in the Helsinki Final Act and extension 2, confirming the bring in past purposes for large self-rule and significant self-organization for Kosovo, defining that the circumstance in the district keeps on comprising a danger to worldwide harmony and security. Determined to guarantee the security and security of universal work force and the execution by all concerned of their duties under the present goals, and representing these reasons under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations.
UNMIK from 1999 to 2001
The OSCE Mission in Kosovo (OMiK) is an integral part of the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), mandated by the 10 June 1999 Security Council Resolution 1244 to provide an interim international civil administration under which the people of Kosovo could enjoy substantial autonomy. This Security Council Resolution vested in UNMIK all legislative and executive powers as well as the administration of the judiciary. Amongst its key tasks, UNMIK would promote the establishment of substantial autonomy and self-government in Kosovo; perform basic civil administrative functions and facilitate the political process to determine Kosovo's future status; maintain law and order and promote human rights. While supporting reconstruction efforts, humanitarian and disaster relief programs, the interim administration would also assure the safe and unimpeded return of all refugees and displaced persons to their homes in Kosovo.
International Criminal Court
An international criminal tribunal has been set up to prosecute the victors of the 1999 war in Kosovo. Yes, you read that right. A court has been set up with a mission to investigate and bring to justice those members of the victorious Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) allegedly responsible for heinous human rights violations and atrocities committed against ethnic minorities and political opponents in the region. An outgrowth of specialist chambers set up by Priština last summer, the lumpily named Kosovo Relocated Specialist Judicial Institution (KRSJI) will be hosted in The Hague. This marks the first time that a special court has been established with the express purpose to prosecute the victors of a war.
The product of long-term negotiations aimed at integrating Kosovo into the European Union, the KRSJI will focus exclusively on KLA combatants, many of whom are revered in Kosovo. Precisely because of the controversial nature of prosecuting widely celebrated figures, all sides agreed that the tribunal should be housed away from the scene of the war. According to the government of the Netherlands.
"Prosecuting KLA members “is a sensitive issue in Kosovo. Possible suspects may be seen by sections of Kosovan society as freedom fighters, and witnesses may feel threatened in Kosovo. This is why the option of trying cases outside Kosovo was explored.”
UNMIK 2001- onwards
UNMIK's mission in Kosovo was facing obstacles before and after Kosovo declared independence. The relationship between the two pairs met some challenges along the way which led to Nikki Haley, the US ambassador to the UN, to request its withdrawal from Kosovo. Her premise behind this request was that their mission had met the end. Additionally, Kosovo citizens also agreed that its mission was, indeed, complete and that Kosovo will secure its sovereignty and functionality of the state, on its own. Many politicians and intellectuals were supporting this action, however there was backlash. This, mostly coming from serbs, who argued that the serb community in Kosovo will not be protected and represented the same, without UNMIK's watch.
Throughout this time period, there were also incidents between Kosovar authority and that of UNMIK's. This may was the time when the accident happened in which the Kosovo police gave detention to two UN staff members. The situation got even worse when the two individuals were reported to have gone to the hospital to recover. Consequently, immediately tension was created.
This was to say that, in Kosovo, not only random Kosovar individuals , but also authorized people found these actions against UNMIK, fit and eligible. It also helps to clear out the picture which speaks that UNMIK's placement here as irrelevant. Albeit some political parties supporting its placement, some other political parties especially the opposition has spoken and advocated very clearly that Kosovo being a sovereign state, does not need any other institution for support.
Zahir Tanin: "The situation in Kosovo is again at a fragile moment" - Jun 10, 2019
UN high ranking representative in Kosovo Zahir Tanin told the Security Council he was "frightened" that the two UN staff individuals captured in Kosovo on 28 may,
"were evidently exposed to inordinate power and abuse upon their capture by police causing wounds and requiring hospitalization."
Two individuals from the UN peacekeeping strategic Kosovo (UNMIK), a Russian national Mikhail Krasnoshchekov and nearby Serb Dejan Dimovic, were captured by the Kosovo unique police power during an activity in Zubin Potok, a lion's share Serb populated region in the north of Kosovo, planned for securing individuals from the Kosovo police for supposed composed wrongdoing inclusion.
The Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Kosovo and head of UNMIK Zahir Tanin said their capture and wounds they continued "is an issue which will shape a basic part of the enquiry we have started."
The Special Representative Tanin said that despite the fact that there has been a reasonable advancement in the course of the most recent twenty years,
"the circumstance in Kosovo, and among Belgrade and Pristina, is again at a delicate minute."
As indicated by Tanin, there were profitable commitment among Belgrade and Pristina since late 2018. And keeping in mind that the evacuation of 100% levy on Serbian and Bosnian merchandise is the Belgrade's base condition for continuing the dealings, Pristina has set its own, though not constantly bound together conditions.
Tanin said "various conflicting open sign have hampered all endeavors to guarantee the full commitment of the two gatherings in a solitary or conclusive procedure" and approached the pioneers on the two sides act duty and don't heighten an effectively "complex circumstance." (click on the photo above to go to the video of Mr. Zahir Tanin's speech).
In addition to this fact, former minister of foreign relations has Enver Hoxhaj, as well, stated that Kosovo is capable of working on the state's functionality on its own, neglecting the fact that Kosovo is still to this day under the resolution 1244 of the UN Security Council.
“UNMIK will continue to remain in Kosovo”, said Stephane Dujarric, the representative of the UN's secretary General.
However, albeit having these difficulties, UNMIK's and Kosovo's relationships has come to create profitable outcomes. Kosovo's domestic policies, but most importantly, foreign policies have improved. Kosovo has been recognized by many other states as well as being part of many organizations.
Declaration of Independence
Kosovo's Parliament declared independence on 17 February, 2008. In a meeting attended by 109 members, the assembly unanimously declared Kosovo to be independent from Serbia. Some Kosovo Serbs restricted to severance have boycotted the move by declining to pursue orders from the focal government in Pristina and endeavoring to hold onto border posts and infrastructure in Serb-populated districts. There have also been random situations of violence against international institutions and governmental institutions, broadly in Northern Kosovo. There were 53 countries who recognized Kosovo as an independent state by the end of 2008, and in total until today there are 108 countries. Five EU members still don't recognize Kosovo as an independent state and those states are: Greece, Slovakia, Cyprus ,Romania and Spain.
The declaration legality has been contested. Serbia wanted international validation and support for its position that the declaration was illegal, and requested an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice in October 2008, but the Court determined that the declaration did not violate any law.
International Recognition of Kosovo
Since its Declaration of Independence from Serbia, enacted on 17 February 2008, international recognition of Kosovo has been mixed, and the international community continues to be divided on the issue.
As of 27 July 2019, the Republic of Kosovo received 115 diplomatic recognition as an independent state, of which 12 have since been withdrawn. As of 17 August 2019, 100 out of 193 (52%) United Nations (UN) member states, 23 out of 28 (82%) European Union (EU) member states, 25 out of 29 (86%) NATO member states, and 34 out of 57 (60%) Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) member states have recognized Kosovo. The government of Serbia does not recognize it as a sovereign state.
In 2013, it began to normalize relations with the government of Kosovo in accordance with the Brussels Agreement, but the process stalled in November 2018 after Kosovo imposed a 100 percent tax on importing Serbian goods.
A number of states expressed concern over the unilateral character of Kosovo's declaration, or explicitly announced that they would not recognize an independent Kosovo. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) remains divided on this issue: of its five members with veto power, three (the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) have recognized the declaration of independence, while the People's Republic of China has expressed concern, urging the continuation of the previous negotiation framework. The Russian Federation has rejected the declaration and considers it illegal. In May 2008, Russia, China, and India released a joint statement calling for new negotiations between Belgrade and Pristina.
Although EU member states individually decide whether to recognize Kosovo, by consensus the EU has commissioned the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX) to ensure peace and continued external oversight. Due to the dispute in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), the reconfiguration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and partial handover to the EULEX mission met with difficulties. In spite of Russian and Serbian protests, the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon proceeded with the reconfiguration plan. On 15 July 2008, he stated: "In the light of the fact that the Security Council is unable to provide guidance, I have instructed my Special Representative to move forward with the reconfiguration of UNMIK ... in order to adapt UNMIK to a changed reality." According to the Secretary-General, the "United Nations has maintained a position of strict neutrality on the question of Kosovo's status". On 26 November 2008, the UNSC gave the green light to the deployment of the EULEX mission in Kosovo. The EU mission is to assume police, justice, and customs duties from the UN, while operating under the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 (UNSCR 1244) that first placed Kosovo under UN administration in 1999.
The First Countries to Recognize Kosovo as an Independent Country.
|1||17 February 2008|
|2||18 February 2008|
|3||18 February 2008|
|4||18 February 2008|
|5||18 February 2008|
|6||18 February 2008|
|7||18 February 2008|
|8||18 February 2008|
|9||19 February 2008|
|10||20 February 2008|
|11||20 February 2008|
|12||21 February 2008|
|13||21 February 2008|
|14||21 February 2008|
|15||21 February 2008|
|16||22 February 2008|
|17||24 February 2008|
|18||26 February 2008|
|19||27 February 2008|
|20||28 February 2008|
Costa Rica was the first country to recognize Kosovo as an Independent Country on February 17, 2008
Kosovo Serbia Relations after Independence
Kosovo turned into a self-governed region beneath the United Nations, which was assigned with defining Kosovo's future standing. Kosovo announced its independence in 2008 but Serbia didn’t and still doesn’t accept Kosovo as an independent country and it is because Serbia considers Kosovo part of its own state.Today, their relations are still at edges with continuous conflicts.
"Confrontation or Normalization?"
|2008||Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was acknowledged by most European countries and the United States|
|2010||The International Court of Justice directed that Kosovo's declaration of independence is not in dispute with international law.|
|2011||Direct EU-mediated talks between Serbia and Kosovo were introduced for the first time since the latter's announcement of independence.|
|2011-2015||As a consequence of the EU talks, Serbia and Kosovo concluded a number of significant agreements, including the Brussels Agreement (April 2013).|
|2015||Small improvement has been made on achieving new agreements or on performing the ones previously concluded. A series of fights has brought relations to a new low.|
|2017||A Serbian train painted with the words 'Kosovo is Serbia' in 21 languages directed for the Serb-majority Kosovar town of North Mitrovica, causing abuse in Kosovo.|
|Jan 2018||The murder of ethnic-Serb politician, who was known as Oliver Ivanovic, in northern Kosovo.|
|Mar 2018||In a move described by Serbia as a criminal act and a inducement, Belgrade representative, Marko Djuric, was blamed of illegally invading Kosovo and expelled.|
|Aug 2018||The President of Serbia and Kosovo President, Hashim Thaçi and Aleksandar Vucic, swam the notion of a 'border correction' as a way out of their impasse. Anyways the proposal immediately ran into opposition.|
|Nov 2018||Kosovo brought in 10 % customs tariffs from the imports coming from Serbia, afterward raised to 100 %, because Serbia prevented Kosovo's efforts in order to enter Interpol.|
Kosovo chose on improving its security force into a thoroughly fledged army. Although the Kosovar army will be little with just 5 000 troops, Serbia sees it as a warning and has hinted that the move could trigger a militant answer.
The Serb politician Oliver Ivanovic, was killed in January 2018 in northern Kosovo, and that caused a heat between the two countries. After that horrifying incident, the discussions between the states were postponed, because Serbia stated that this was "an act of terrorism." Afterwards, Kosovo raised its tariff duties on the imports from Serbia to 100%. Nevertheless, both presidents, Thaçi and Vucic, will again have a talk on April 29th in a gathering which is being organized by France and Germany and try and find actual solutions to their pause.
|" The creation of Kosovan Army" Dec 2018|
Twenty years have passed since Kosovo was freed from the Serbian army's occupation, and eleven years since it was declared an independent country. For Kosovar citizens, these years were rough since almost everything had to start from the beginning. As an independent country, Kosovo is recognized by many countries and is striving to join the EU. This country is democratic republic. Moreover, this young Europeans, has reached a population of 1.83 million. Albanian population form the majority with 93% whereas the minorities; Serbs, Turkish, Bosnian, Egyptian, Gorani, Roma and Askhali form the other 7%.
Even though the war between the Serbian forces has ended, there is still no final peace deal between Serbia and Kosovo. This state has a low economic integration in global terms, no static energy supply, corruption, political instability and many other obstacles, as every other country has in its first years.
Still, Kosovo's economy has turned into a market based-system. Kosovo receives a big help from the diaspora, the population who lives in western Europe which donate or help them. It is an important location for setting up new businesses. Kosovo also offers some positive aspects such as the young population, many natural resources, good climate conditions and a very low tax compared with the other countries in the Balkans.
The Newborn Monument is a typographic sculpture and tourist attraction in Pristina, Kosovo. It was unveiled on 17 February 2008.
Kosovo's Accession in the European Union
Kosovo's accession in the European Union (EU) is on the current EU enlargement agenda. The EU considers Kosovo as a potential for membership. Independence declaration of Kosovo was issued from Serbia by a vote of Kosovo Assembly on 17 February 2008. Serbia did not recognize Kosovo's independence, or five out from 28 members of European Union (Spain, Slovakia, Cyprus, Romania, and Greece), and as a result of the EU itself refers directly and only to "Kosovo", with a footnote containing the text agreed to by the Belegrade - Prishtina negotiations: "This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo Decleration of Independence." The EU works in Kosovo under the umbrella of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), deploying police and civilian personnel under the European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) to ensure stability in the region and impartial rule of law enforcement. The EU-Kosovo Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA) was signed on 26 February 2016 and entered into force on 1 April 2016. The European Commission released its expansion plan on 6 February 2018 covering up six countries in the Western Balkans: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia. The plan is that all six applicants will achieve accession as members of the European Union after the year of 2025.
An envoy of the European Parliament inn October 2010, implied that lack of recognition by some countries would not be an barrier to Kosovo joining the Schengen area's visa-free regime.
Kosovo's Monetary Policy
Different from some states, especially different from Albania,Kosovo does not have its own unique money currency.
Firstly, before the establishment of UNMIK, Kosovo considered as a part of Serbia had to use the monetary policy of Yugoslavia which was Yugoslav Dinar. However,with the ongoing tensions and beliefs of the split of The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Yugoslav dinar lost its credibility.
As a result of this, many citizens demanded the usage of a foreign currency.That is when the Deutsche mark or German Mark started to be used the most. Still, in 1999 UNMIK made a regulation that let the usage of other currencies too such as the U.S dollar. The Yugoslav dinar was not restricted yet but it was not preferred to be used.
Euro as a Currency in Kosovo
Same as Germany Kosovo changed to using Euro in January 1st 2002. However, the Deutsche mark was legal to use until March 9,2002.Having Euro as a currency in Kosovo was made possible with the help of the European Central Bank with the location in Frankfurt,Germany. Even though Kosovo has adopted the use of euro, in order to join the eurozone it shoud meet the euro convergence criteria. These five criteria include:
- HICP inflation
- Government budget deficit
- Government debt to GDP-radio
- Exchange rate stability
- Long-term interest rates
Another topic relating to Kosovo's pursuit of becoming a part of the EU is visa liberalization. Of all the countries in the Balkans, Kosovo is the only one that does not have free access to the Schengen Area; a visa is needed to enter. Visa liberalization talks between the European Union and Kosovo were first introduced on January 19th, 2012. Though the EU decided Kosovar visas would be liberalized by May 2016, the process has since been delayed because Kosovo apparently "fails" to meet the all the necessary requirements for free travel, though U.S. chairman of foreign affairs, Representative Eliot L. Engel, thinks otherwise.
A commission report concluded that Kosovo met all the requirements for a visa free access in the Schengen Area.
In September 24, 2019, The European Parliament agreed to start the discussions with the European council on the matters of visa liberalizations for Kosovo.
According to a press release published by the U.S. Committee on Foreign Affairs on October 8th, 2019, U.S. Chairman of Foreign Affairs, Representative Eliot L. Engel, pressured the EU to liberalize Kosovo's visas and certify the Visa Liberalization Plan. In a letter to EU President Donald Tusk, Engel writes, "If treated like citizens of every other Balkan country, Kosovars would already be traveling visa free into the Schengen area. But, the inability to grant visa liberalization seems to show there is a second standard being applied to the people of Kosovo."
To this day, visa liberalization for Kosovo still remains a matter in progress. Kosovar citizens continue to hope that visas will be liberalized as soon as possible. There are ongoing protests and concerns about this topic. This would be a big step for Kosovo's pursuit of membership in the EU. Visa liberalization is anticipated to happen within the year (2019).
Kosovo's protests for visa liberalization
"PA VIZA": "WITHOUT VISAS"
Deputies positions regarding the matter of Kosovo's visa liberalization
The Maldive Islands
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