Faculty see essentially the same information you see when you click on your "My Progress" link in the Welcome section of your myCourses home or on the "View Progress" icon next to your name in the Classlist. There are just three differences.
Faculty only see the information listed for the course(s) you are taking with them, not the cumulative view you have of all your enrolled courses.
The two remaining differences are with the Discussion section of the User Progress. With the grand summary -- Course Messages, User Authored, User Read -- the professor also sees a summary of those number for each Forum and Topic as well. The professor is also provided with a Details button for Discussions. This button provides them with a summary window listing the subjects of all messages posted by the individual they are viewing. They may click on a subject to quickly read the messages posted by the user. This details overview is used by many faculty to assist with grading quality over quantity in their Discussion areas.
Example Student view of the Discussions summary:
Example Faculty view of the Discussions summary, including the Details window: